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      Polymers for 3D Printing and Customized Additive Manufacturing


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          Additive manufacturing (AM) alias 3D printing translates computer-aided design (CAD) virtual 3D models into physical objects. By digital slicing of CAD, 3D scan, or tomography data, AM builds objects layer by layer without the need for molds or machining. AM enables decentralized fabrication of customized objects on demand by exploiting digital information storage and retrieval via the Internet. The ongoing transition from rapid prototyping to rapid manufacturing prompts new challenges for mechanical engineers and materials scientists alike. Because polymers are by far the most utilized class of materials for AM, this Review focuses on polymer processing and the development of polymers and advanced polymer systems specifically for AM. AM techniques covered include vat photopolymerization (stereolithography), powder bed fusion (SLS), material and binder jetting (inkjet and aerosol 3D printing), sheet lamination (LOM), extrusion (FDM, 3D dispensing, 3D fiber deposition, and 3D plotting), and 3D bioprinting. The range of polymers used in AM encompasses thermoplastics, thermosets, elastomers, hydrogels, functional polymers, polymer blends, composites, and biological systems. Aspects of polymer design, additives, and processing parameters as they relate to enhancing build speed and improving accuracy, functionality, surface finish, stability, mechanical properties, and porosity are addressed. Selected applications demonstrate how polymer-based AM is being exploited in lightweight engineering, architecture, food processing, optics, energy technology, dentistry, drug delivery, and personalized medicine. Unparalleled by metals and ceramics, polymer-based AM plays a key role in the emerging AM of advanced multifunctional and multimaterial systems including living biological systems as well as life-like synthetic systems.

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          Most cited references598

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          Thiol-ene click chemistry.

          Following Sharpless' visionary characterization of several idealized reactions as click reactions, the materials science and synthetic chemistry communities have pursued numerous routes toward the identification and implementation of these click reactions. Herein, we review the radical-mediated thiol-ene reaction as one such click reaction. This reaction has all the desirable features of a click reaction, being highly efficient, simple to execute with no side products and proceeding rapidly to high yield. Further, the thiol-ene reaction is most frequently photoinitiated, particularly for photopolymerizations resulting in highly uniform polymer networks, promoting unique capabilities related to spatial and temporal control of the click reaction. The reaction mechanism and its implementation in various synthetic methodologies, biofunctionalization, surface and polymer modification, and polymerization are all reviewed.
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            3D printing of polymer matrix composites: A review and prospective

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              Additive manufacturing. Continuous liquid interface production of 3D objects.

              Additive manufacturing processes such as 3D printing use time-consuming, stepwise layer-by-layer approaches to object fabrication. We demonstrate the continuous generation of monolithic polymeric parts up to tens of centimeters in size with feature resolution below 100 micrometers. Continuous liquid interface production is achieved with an oxygen-permeable window below the ultraviolet image projection plane, which creates a "dead zone" (persistent liquid interface) where photopolymerization is inhibited between the window and the polymerizing part. We delineate critical control parameters and show that complex solid parts can be drawn out of the resin at rates of hundreds of millimeters per hour. These print speeds allow parts to be produced in minutes instead of hours.

                Author and article information

                Chem Rev
                Chem. Rev
                Chemical Reviews
                American Chemical Society
                30 July 2017
                09 August 2017
                : 117
                : 15
                : 10212-10290
                []Laboratory for High Performance Ceramics, Empa, The Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology , Überlandstrasse 129, Dübendorf CH-8600, Switzerland
                [2] Institute of Applied Synthetic Chemistry and §Institute of Materials Science and Technology, TU Wien , Getreidemarkt 9, Vienna A-1060, Austria
                []H. B. Fuller Deutschland GmbH , An der Roten Bleiche 2-3, Lüneburg D-21335, Germany
                []Freiburg Materials Research Center (FMF) and Institute for Macromolecular Chemistry, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg , Stefan-Meier-Straße 31, Freiburg D-79104, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Fax: (+41) 58 765 6950. E-mail: clark.ligon@ 123456empa.ch .
                [* ]Fax: (+49) 761 203 6319. E-mail: rolfmuelhaupt@ 123456web.de .
                Copyright © 2017 American Chemical Society

                This is an open access article published under a Creative Commons Attribution (CC-BY) License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the author and source are cited.

                : 01 February 2017
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