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      Improving Visible Light-Absorptivity and Photoelectric Conversion Efficiency of a TiO2 Nanotube Anode Film by Sensitization with Bi2O3 Nanoparticles

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          Abstract

          This study presents a novel visible light-active TiO 2 nanotube anode film by sensitization with Bi 2O 3 nanoparticles. The uniform incorporation of Bi 2O 3 contributes to largely enhancing the solar light absorption and photoelectric conversion efficiency of TiO 2 nanotubes. Due to the energy level difference between Bi 2O 3 and TiO 2, the built-in electric field is suggested to be formed in the Bi 2O 3 sensitized TiO 2 hybrid, which effectively separates the photo-generated electron-hole pairs and hence improves the photocatalytic activity. It is also found that the photoelectric conversion efficiency of Bi 2O 3 sensitized TiO 2 nanotubes is not in direct proportion with the content of the sensitizer, Bi 2O 3, which should be carefully controlled to realize excellent photoelectrical properties. With a narrower energy band gap relative to TiO 2, the sensitizer Bi 2O 3 can efficiently harvest the solar energy to generate electrons and holes, while TiO 2 collects and transports the charge carriers. The new-type visible light-sensitive photocatalyst presented in this paper will shed light on sensitizing many other wide-band-gap semiconductors for improving solar photocatalysis, and on understanding the visible light-driven photocatalysis through narrow-band-gap semiconductor coupling.

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          Most cited references 35

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          A review of one-dimensional TiO2 nanostructured materials for environmental and energy applications

          State-of-the-art development of fabrication methods and surface engineering strategies of 1D TiO2 nanostructures is reviewed, and an overview given of their potential applications including pollutant degradation/CO2 photoreduction photocatalysts, water splitting, solar cells, lithium-ion batteries and supercapacitors.
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            TiO2 nanosheets with exposed {001} facets for photocatalytic applications

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              Synthesis and stabilization of metal nanocatalysts for reduction reactions – a review

               Huawen Hu,  John Xin,  Hong Hu (2015)
              A review of stabilizing systems for metal nanocatalysts, such as surfactants, complexants, polymers, SiO 2 , Fe 3 O 4 , graphene materials, and combined components thereof. Since the fast development of various chemical industries nowadays poses a serious threat to the environment in terms of leaving behind an increasing quantity of aromatic pollutants, to find an effective approach for handling aromatic pollutants is of growing scientific and technological importance. Numerous research studies have attempted to address the environmental problems caused by aromatic pollutants with much attention to water-soluble aromatic dye and nitro compounds. In particular, the catalytic reduction of dye and nitro compounds over metal-based catalysts has gained much interest in these years. However, review studies are rarely reported that summarize the contributions in this hot research area. Herein, we perform a review study to summarize these contributions, to discuss the existing problems, and to offer guidelines for future exploration; in the meanwhile, other methods for processing aromatic pollutants are also briefly introduced. It is well known that the reduction reaction is highly dependent on catalysts since the reaction between an aromatic compound and a reducing agent either cannot take place or proceeds very slowly if without the assistance of a catalyst. As a result, this review article pays special attention to the widely reported metal-based catalysts for the reduction reaction. These catalysts are categorized into different groups on the basis of the stabilizing systems utilized for synthesis of metal catalysts, mainly including surfactants/ligands, polymer supports, unmodified inorganic supports, functionalized inorganic supports, and organic combined with inorganic supports. As an important material in science and technology, especially in the field of catalysis due to its unique 2D structure and remarkable physicochemical properties, graphene used for supporting and stabilizing metal catalysts for the catalytic reduction reaction is specifically reviewed and summarized in the article. Finally, the remaining problems associated with the design and fabrication of cost-effective, efficient, and durable metal-based catalysts for aromatic pollutant reduction are outlined.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]College of Materials Science and Energy Engineering, Foshan University, Foshan 528000, Guangdong, China; mengleic@ 123456sina.com (M.C.); mengleic@ 123456sina.com (H.H.); cdcever@ 123456163.com (D.C.)
                [2 ]Key Laboratory of Renewable Energy, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640, Guangdong, China; wulp@ 123456ms.giec.ac.cn
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: momo@ 123456ms.giec.ac.cn (Y.Z.); lixj@ 123456ms.giec.ac.cn (X.L.)
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Nanomaterials (Basel)
                Nanomaterials (Basel)
                nanomaterials
                Nanomaterials
                MDPI
                2079-4991
                09 May 2017
                May 2017
                : 7
                : 5
                28486406 5449985 10.3390/nano7050104 nanomaterials-07-00104
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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