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      In vitro degradation and cell attachment of a PLGA coated biodegradable Mg–6Zn based alloy

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      Journal of Materials Science

      Springer Nature

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          In vivo corrosion of four magnesium alloys and the associated bone response.

          Degrading metal alloys are a new class of implant materials suitable for bone surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the degradation mechanism at the bone-implant interface of different degrading magnesium alloys in bone and to determine their effect on the surrounding bone. Sample rods of four different magnesium alloys and a degradable polymer as a control were implanted intramedullary into the femora of guinea pigs. After 6 and 18 weeks, uncalcified sections were generated for histomorphologic analysis. The bone-implant interface was characterized in uncalcified sections by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), element mapping and X-ray diffraction. Results showed that metallic implants made of magnesium alloys degrade in vivo depending on the composition of the alloying elements. While the corrosion layer of all magnesium alloys accumulated with biological calcium phosphates, the corrosion layer was in direct contact with the surrounding bone. The results further showed high mineral apposition rates and an increased bone mass around the magnesium rods, while no bone was induced in the surrounding soft tissue. From the results of this study, there is a strong rationale that in this research model, high magnesium ion concentration could lead to bone cell activation.
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            Mechanisms of polymer degradation and erosion

             A Göpferich (1996)
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              The development of binary Mg-Ca alloys for use as biodegradable materials within bone.

              Binary Mg-Ca alloys with various Ca contents were fabricated under different working conditions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and optical microscopy observations showed that Mg-xCa (x=1-3 wt%) alloys were composed of two phases, alpha (Mg) and Mg2Ca. The results of tensile tests and in vitro corrosion tests indicated that the mechanical properties could be adjusted by controlling the Ca content and processing treatment. The yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation decreased with increasing Ca content. The UTS and elongation of as-cast Mg-1Ca alloy (71.38+/-3.01 MPa and 1.87+/-0.14%) were largely improved after hot rolling (166.7+/-3.01 MPa and 3+/-0.78%) and hot extrusion (239.63+/-7.21 MPa and 10.63+/-0.64%). The in vitro corrosion test in simulated body fluid (SBF) indicated that the microstructure and working history of Mg-xCa alloys strongly affected their corrosion behaviors. An increasing content of Mg2Ca phase led to a higher corrosion rate whereas hot rolling and hot extrusion could reduce it. The cytotoxicity evaluation using L-929 cells revealed that Mg-1Ca alloy did not induce toxicity to cells, and the viability of cells for Mg-1Ca alloy extraction medium was better than that of control. Moreover, Mg-1Ca alloy pins, with commercial pure Ti pins as control, were implanted into the left and right rabbit femoral shafts, respectively, and observed for 1, 2 and 3 months. High activity of osteoblast and osteocytes were observed around the Mg-1Ca alloy pins as shown by hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections. Radiographic examination revealed that the Mg-1Ca alloy pins gradually degraded in vivo within 90 days and the newly formed bone was clearly seen at month 3. Both the in vitro and in vivo corrosion suggested that a mixture of Mg(OH)2 and hydroxyapatite formed on the surface of Mg-1Ca alloy with the extension of immersion/implantation time. In addition, no significant difference (p>0.05) of serum magnesium was detected at different degradation stages. All these results revealed that Mg-1Ca alloy had the acceptable biocompatibility as a new kind of biodegradable implant material. Based on the above results, a solid alloy/liquid solution interface model was also proposed to interpret the biocorrosion process and the associated hydroxyapatite mineralization.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Materials Science
                J Mater Sci
                Springer Nature
                0022-2461
                1573-4803
                November 2010
                June 2010
                : 45
                : 22
                : 6038-6045
                Article
                10.1007/s10853-010-4688-9
                © 2010
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