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Improvements in SOD mimic AEOL-10150, a potent broad-spectrum antioxidant

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      Abstract

      AEOL-10150 is a broad-spectrum metalloporphyrin superoxidase dismutase (SOD) mimic specifically designed to neutralize reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Research has shown that AEOL-10150 is a potent medical countermeasure against national security threats including sulfur mustard (SM), nerve agent exposure and radiation pneumonitis following a radiological/nuclear incident sufficient to cause acute radiation syndrome (ARS). AEOL-10150 performed well in animal safety studies, and two completed phase 1 safety studies in patients demonstrated that the drug was safe and well tolerated, indicating that AEOL-10150 has potential as a new catalytic antioxidant drug. In this article, we review improvements in AEOL-10150 in preclinical pharmacodynamic studies, especially regarding anti-SM, chlorine gas and radiation exposure studies.

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      Most cited references 63

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      Oxidative stress and redox regulation of lung inflammation in COPD.

       I Rahman,  I. Adcock (2006)
      Reactive oxygen species, either directly or via the formation of lipid peroxidation products, may play a role in enhancing inflammation through the activation of stress kinases (c-Jun activated kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38) and redox-sensitive transcription factors, such as nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB and activator protein-1. This results in increased expression of a battery of distinct pro-inflammatory mediators. Oxidative stress activates NF-kappaB-mediated transcription of pro-inflammatory mediators either through activation of its activating inhibitor of kappaB-alpha kinase or the enhanced recruitment and activation of transcriptional co-activators. Enhanced NF-kappaB-co-activator complex formation results in targeted increases in histone modifications, such as acetylation leading to inflammatory gene expression. Emerging evidence suggests the glutathione redox couple may entail dynamic regulation of protein function by reversible disulphide bond formation on kinases, phosphatases and transcription factors. Oxidative stress also inhibits histone deacetylase activity and in doing so further enhances inflammatory gene expression and may attenuate glucocorticoid sensitivity. The antioxidant/anti-inflammatory effects of thiol molecules (glutathione, N-acetyl-L-cysteine and N-acystelyn, erdosteine), dietary polyphenols (curcumin-diferuloylmethane, cathechins/quercetin and reserveratol), specific spin traps, such as alpha-phenyl-N-tert-butyl nitrone, a catalytic antioxidant (extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic, SOD mimetic M40419 and SOD, and catalase manganic salen compound, eukarion-8), porphyrins (AEOL 10150 and AEOL 10113) and theophylline have all been shown to play a role in either controlling NF-kappaB activation or affecting histone modifications with subsequent effects on inflammatory gene expression in lung epithelial cells. Thus, oxidative stress regulates both key signal transduction pathways and histone modifications involved in lung inflammation. Various approaches to enhance lung antioxidant capacity and clinical trials of antioxidant compounds in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are also discussed.
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        Lost in translation: treatment trials in the SOD1 mouse and in human ALS.

        Therapeutic success in the superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has not translated into effective therapy for human ALS, calling into question the utility of such preclinical data for identifying therapeutic agents that are worthy of further study in humans. This random effects meta-analysis of treatment trials in the superoxide dismutase (SOD1) mouse was undertaken in order to explore possible reasons for this failure of translational research and to identify potential pharmacological interventions that might be used in either a preventative or therapeutic trial in familial ALS. Among studies in which treatment was initiated presymptomatically, the weighted mean differences (WMDs) comparing the active treatment to control treated animals were 12 days (onset), 13 days (survival) and 5 days (survival interval). Among studies in which treatment was initiated at the time of symptom onset, the WMDs were 15 days (survival) and 8 days (survival interval). Subgroup analysis suggests that drugs such as minocycline and Cox-2 inhibitors with an anti-inflammatory mechanism of action, and anti-oxidative agents such as creatine or the manganese porphyrin AEOL-10150, appear to be the most promising for preventative and therapeutic trials respectively in patients with familial ALS. These conclusions should be tempered by the methodological limitations of the relevant literature.
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          Response of human islets to isolation stress and the effect of antioxidant treatment.

          The process of human islet isolation triggers a cascade of stressful events in the islets of Langerhans involving activation of apoptosis and necrosis and the production of proinflammatory molecules that negatively influence islet yield and function and may produce detrimental effects after islet transplantation. In this study, we showed that activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), two of the major pathways responsible for cellular responses to stress, already occurs in pancreatic cells during the isolation procedure. NF-kappaB-dependent reactions, such as production and release of interleukin-6 and -8 and macrophage chemoattractant protein 1, were observed days after the isolation procedure in isolated purified islets. Under culture conditions specially designed to mimic isolation stress, islet proinflammatory responses were even more pronounced and correlated with higher islet cell loss and impaired secretory function. Here we present novel evidence that early interventions aimed at reducing oxidative stress of pancreatic cells and islets through the use of the catalytic antioxidant probe AEOL10150 (manganese [III] 5,10,15,20-tetrakis [1,3,-diethyl-2imidazoyl] manganese-porphyrin pentachloride [TDE-2,5-IP]) effectively reduces NF-kappaB binding to DNA, the release of cytokines and chemokines, and PARP activation in islet cells, resulting in higher survival and better insulin release. These findings support the concept that the isolation process predisposes islets to subsequent damage and functional impairment. Blocking oxidative stress can be beneficial in reducing islet vulnerability and can potentially have a significant impact on transplantation outcome.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            ISNI 0000 0004 1803 4911, GRID grid.410740.6, State Key Laboratory of Toxicology and Medical Countermeasures, , Beijing Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, ; Beijing, 100850 China
            Contributors
            zhangx_r@126.com
            zhouwx@bmi.ac.cn
            zhangyx@bmi.ac.cn
            Journal
            Mil Med Res
            Mil Med Res
            Military Medical Research
            BioMed Central (London )
            2095-7467
            2054-9369
            6 September 2018
            6 September 2018
            2018
            : 5
            30185231
            6125955
            176
            10.1186/s40779-018-0176-3
            © The Author(s). 2018

            Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

            Funding
            Funded by: Chinese Scientific and Technological Major Special Project
            Award ID: 2015ZX09J15104002-002
            Award ID: 2016ZX09J16104
            Categories
            Review
            Custom metadata
            © The Author(s) 2018

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