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      Hyperlipemia and Oxidation of LDL Induce Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Growth: An Effect Mediated by the HLH Factor Id3

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          Hyperlipemia and oxidized LDL (ox-LDL) are important independent cardiovascular risk factors. Ox-LDL has been shown to stimulate vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation. However, the effects of hyperlipemia and the molecular mechanisms mediating hyperlipemia and ox-LDL effects on VSMC growth are poorly understood. The helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor, Id3, is a redox-sensitive gene expressed in VSMC in response to mitogen stimulation and vascular injury. Accordingly, we hypothesize that Id3 is an important mediator of ox-LDL and hyperlipemia-induced VSMC growth. Aortas harvested from hyperlipemic pigs demonstrated significantly more Id3 than normolipemic controls. Primary VSMC were stimulated with ox-LDL, native LDL, sera from hyperlipemic pigs, or normolipemic pigs. VSMC exposed to hyperlipemic sera demonstrated increased Id3 expression, VSMC growth and S-phase entry and decreased p21<sup>cip1</sup> expression and transcription. Cells stimulated with ox-LDL demonstrated similar findings of increased growth and Id3 expression and decreased p21<sup>cip1</sup> expression. Moreover, the effects of ox-LDL on growth were abolished in cells devoid of the Id3 gene. Results provide evidence that the HLH factor Id3 mediates the mitogenic effect of hyperlipemic sera and ox-LDL in VSMC via inhibition of p21<sup>cip1</sup> expression, subsequently increasing DNA synthesis and proliferation.

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          Correlation of terminal cell cycle arrest of skeletal muscle with induction of p21 by MyoD.

          Skeletal muscle differentiation entails the coordination of muscle-specific gene expression and terminal withdrawal from the cell cycle. This cell cycle arrest in the G0 phase requires the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (Rb). The function of Rb is negatively regulated by cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), which are controlled by Cdk inhibitors. Expression of MyoD, a skeletal muscle-specific transcriptional regulator, activated the expression of the Cdk inhibitor p21 during differentiation of murine myocytes and in nonmyogenic cells. MyoD-mediated induction of p21 did not require the tumor suppressor protein p53 and correlated with cell cycle withdrawal. Thus, MyoD may induce terminal cell cycle arrest during skeletal muscle differentiation by increasing the expression of p21.
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            Functional activity of myogenic HLH proteins requires hetero-oligomerization with E12/E47-like proteins in vivo.

            In this report we provide four lines of evidence indicating that E12/E47-like proteins interact in vivo with the myogenic HLH proteins MyoD and myogenin. First, cotransfection of MyoD and E47 in COS cells indicates that these factors synergistically enhance transcription of a reporter gene containing an oligomerized MyoD-binding site. Second, mobility-shift assays of muscle cell nuclear extracts, "double shifted" with specific antisera, have identified complexes binding to the MEF1 site that contain either MyoD or myogenin in association with E12/E47-like proteins. Third, association with E47 alters the phosphorylation state of MyoD. Fourth, C3H10T1/2 cells expressing antisense E2A transcripts contain low levels of E2A gene products and display less terminal muscle differentiation when infected with retroviral MyoD or when challenged to differentiate with 5-azacytidine treatment. In addition we demonstrate that MyoD, in conjunction with E12/E47-like proteins, is functioning as a regulatory nodal point for activation of several other downstream muscle regulators.
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              Diabetes-induced accelerated atherosclerosis in swine.

              Patients with diabetes are at higher risk for atherosclerotic disease than nondiabetic individuals with other comparable risk factors. Studies examining mechanisms underlying diabetes-accelerated atherosclerosis have been limited by the lack of suitable humanoid animal models. In this study, diabetes was superimposed on a well-characterized swine model of atherosclerosis by injection of the beta-cell cytotoxin streptozotocin (STZ), resulting in a >80% reduction in beta-cells and an increase in plasma glucose to diabetic levels. Animals were maintained without exogenous insulin for up to 48 weeks. Plasma glucose and cholesterol levels and lesion extent and severity were quantified in swine with diabetes and hyperlipemia alone and in combination compared with controls. Diabetes had no effect on plasma cholesterol levels, but diabetic/hyperlipemic (D-HL) swine developed hypertriglyceridemia and showed a doubling in aortic sudanophilia over nondiabetic/hyperlipemic (N-HL) swine as early as 12 weeks (47.25 +/- 4.5 vs. 24.0 +/- 4.6%). At 20 weeks, coronary artery stenosis was significantly greater in D-HL than in N-HL animals (86 +/- 10 vs. 46 +/- 8%). Coronary lesions predominantly arose in the first 2-3 cm of the vessels and displayed humanoid morphology. Aortic lesions in D-HL swine had double the cholesterol content of those in N-HL swine, and incorporation of oleate into cholesteryl ester was significantly greater in grossly normal aortic areas of D-HL swine compared with N-HL and was attributed to similar elevated incorporation in monocytes. This large study demonstrates that a model of diabetes with humanoid characteristics, including hypertriglyceridemia and severe, accelerated atherosclerosis can be reproducibly induced and maintained in swine. This model should potentially be of great value in elucidating mechanisms underlying the accelerated atherosclerosis seen in human diabetic individuals.

                Author and article information

                J Vasc Res
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                February 2006
                16 February 2006
                : 43
                : 2
                : 123-130
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Cardiovascular Division, and the Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, Va.; bDepartment of Pathology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Ga., USA
                90131 PMC2929384 J Vasc Res 2006;43:123–130
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 35, Pages: 8
                Research Paper


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