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      The Role of Mindful Parenting in Individual and Social Decision-Making in Children

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          Abstract

          Children are confronted with an increasing amount of choices every day, which can be stressful. Decision-making skills may be one of the most important “21st century skills” that children need to master to ensure success. Many aspects of decision-making, such as emotion regulation during stressful situations, develop in the context of caregiver-child interactions. This study examined whether mindful parenting predicts children’s individual and social decision-making. The current study included 63 mother-child dyads from The Netherlands (Child M age  = 5.11, SD = 0.88, 50.8% girls). Mothers completed the Dutch version of the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Parenting Scale (IM-P). A “Choice Task” was developed to measure individual decision-making skills, and a “Sharing Task” was created to measure social decision-making in young children. Higher maternal mindful parenting significantly predicted more sharing after controlling for covariates (child age, sex, SES, maternal education level; Wald = 4.505, p = 0.034). No main effect of maternal mindful parenting was found for any of the individual decision-making measures. These findings suggest that mindful parenting supports children’s social decision-making. Future research should investigate if the combination of mindful parenting and children’s early decision-making skills predict key developmental outcomes.

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          Most cited references 48

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          Decision making under stress: a selective review.

          Many decisions must be made under stress, and many decision situations elicit stress responses themselves. Thus, stress and decision making are intricately connected, not only on the behavioral level, but also on the neural level, i.e., the brain regions that underlie intact decision making are regions that are sensitive to stress-induced changes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the findings from studies that investigated the impact of stress on decision making. The review includes those studies that examined decision making under stress in humans and were published between 1985 and October 2011. The reviewed studies were found using PubMed and PsycInfo searches. The review focuses on studies that have examined the influence of acutely induced laboratory stress on decision making and that measured both decision-making performance and stress responses. Additionally, some studies that investigated decision making under naturally occurring stress levels and decision-making abilities in patients who suffer from stress-related disorders are described. The results from the studies that were included in the review support the assumption that stress affects decision making. If stress confers an advantage or disadvantage in terms of outcome depends on the specific task or situation. The results also emphasize the role of mediating and moderating variables. The results are discussed with respect to underlying psychological and neural mechanisms, implications for everyday decision making and future research directions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Emotion, cognition, and decision making

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              Emotion regulation: a theme in search of definition.

              Contemporary interest in emotion regulation promises to advance important new views of emotional development as well as offering applications to developmental psychopathology, but these potential contributions are contingent on developmentalists' attention to some basic definitional issues. This essay offers a perspective on these issues by considering how emotion regulation should be defined, the various components of the management of emotion, how emotion regulation strategies fit into the dynamics of social interaction, and how individual differences in emotion regulation should be conceptualized and measured. In the end, it seems clear that emotion regulation is a conceptual rubric for a remarkable range of developmental processes, each of which may have its own catalysts and control processes. Likewise, individual differences in emotion regulation skills likely have multifaceted origins and are also related in complex ways to the person's emotional goals and the immediate demands of the situation. Assessment approaches that focus on the dynamics of emotion are well suited to elucidating these complex developmental and individual differences. In sum, a challenging research agenda awaits those who enter this promising field of study.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Psychol
                Front Psychol
                Front. Psychol.
                Frontiers in Psychology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-1078
                20 March 2019
                2019
                : 10
                Affiliations
                1 Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Alpert Medical School of Brown University , Providence, RI, United States
                2 Bradley Research Center, E. P. Bradley Hospital , Providence, RI, United States
                3 Department of Psychology, University of Denver , Denver, CO, United States
                4 Independent Researcher , Tilburg, Netherlands
                5 Department of Psychology, Wayne State University , Detroit, MI, United States
                6 Faculty of Social and Behavioral Sciences, Tilburg University , Tilburg, Netherlands
                7 Department of Social Psychology, Tilburg University , Tilburg, Netherlands
                8 Department of Marketing, VU Amsterdam , Amsterdam, Netherlands
                9 Department of Cognitive Neuropsychology, Tilburg University , Tilburg, Netherlands
                Author notes

                Edited by: Helena Moreira, University of Coimbra, Portugal

                Reviewed by: Ana Fonseca, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal; Kathryn Humphreys, Vanderbilt University, United States

                *Correspondence: Marion I. van den Heuvel, m.vdnheuvel@ 123456gmail.com

                This article was submitted to Clinical and Health Psychology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Psychology

                Article
                10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00550
                6435956
                Copyright © 2019 Wong, Hicks, Seuntjens, Trentacosta, Hendriksen, Zeelenberg and van den Heuvel.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Equations: 0, References: 63, Pages: 10, Words: 7988
                Categories
                Psychology
                Original Research

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