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      COVID-19, internet, and mobility: The rise of telework, telehealth, e-learning, and e-shopping

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          Abstract

          This study provides new evidence on changes in a range of online activities due to the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. Online activities replaced physical participation in activities and contributed to changes in urban mobility during the pandemic. Using data from a nationwide survey in Greece, the paper examines changes in the importance and the frequency of engaging in online activities before and during COVID-19. Findings show that both the importance and the frequency of engaging in telework, teleconferencing, online learning (e-learning), telehealth, and online shopping (e-shopping) significantly increased during COVID-19 compared to pre-COVID-19. Substantial increases in importance were reported for telework (31% increase), teleconferencing (34% increase), online learning (34% increase), and telehealth (21% increase). Those who, on a daily basis, teleworked, teleconferenced, and made video calls with family or friends quadrupled during COVID-19, while daily online learners increased seven-fold. Telehealth and online shopping also increased but more modestly. Urban mobility in the post-COVID-19 era is likely to depend on the degree of prevalence and acceptance of these remote online activities, together with a set of complex and interconnected factors related to urban form, the spatial planning and decision-making system, and social awareness about the future of cities.

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          Most cited references 62

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          Telehealth Transformation: COVID-19 and the rise of Virtual Care

          Abstract The novel coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has altered our economy, society and healthcare system. While this crisis has presented the US healthcare delivery system with unprecedented challenges, the pandemic has catalyzed rapid adoption of telehealth or the entire spectrum of activities used to deliver care at a distance. Using examples reported by US healthcare organizations including ours, we describe the role telehealth has played in transforming healthcare delivery during the three phases of the US COVID-19 pandemic: 1) Stay-at-Home Outpatient Care; 2) Initial COVID-19 Hospital Surge, and 3) Post-Pandemic Recovery. Within each of these three phases, we examine how people, process and technology work together to support a successful telehealth transformation. Whether healthcare enterprises are ready or not, the new reality is that virtual care has arrived.
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            The effect of COVID-19 and subsequent social distancing on travel behavior

             Jonas De Vos (2020)
            The spread of the COVID-19 virus has resulted in unprecedented measures restricting travel and activity participation in many countries. Social distancing, i.e., reducing interactions between individuals in order to slow down the spread of the virus, has become the new norm. In this viewpoint I will discuss the potential implications of social distancing on daily travel patterns. Avoiding social contact might completely change the number and types of out-of-home activities people perform, and how people reach these activities. It can be expected that the demand for travel will reduce and that people will travel less by public transport. Social distancing might negatively affect subjective well-being and health status, as it might result in social isolation and limited physical activity. As a result, walking and cycling, recreationally or utilitarian, can be important ways to maintain satisfactory levels of health and well-being. Policymakers and planners should consequently try to encourage active travel, while public transport operators should focus on creating ways to safely use public transport.
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              Likert scales, levels of measurement and the "laws" of statistics.

               Geoff Norman (2010)
              Reviewers of research reports frequently criticize the choice of statistical methods. While some of these criticisms are well-founded, frequently the use of various parametric methods such as analysis of variance, regression, correlation are faulted because: (a) the sample size is too small, (b) the data may not be normally distributed, or (c) The data are from Likert scales, which are ordinal, so parametric statistics cannot be used. In this paper, I dissect these arguments, and show that many studies, dating back to the 1930s consistently show that parametric statistics are robust with respect to violations of these assumptions. Hence, challenges like those above are unfounded, and parametric methods can be utilized without concern for "getting the wrong answer".
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sustain Cities Soc
                Sustain Cities Soc
                Sustainable Cities and Society
                The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.
                2210-6707
                2210-6715
                17 July 2021
                November 2021
                17 July 2021
                : 74
                : 103182
                Affiliations
                [a ]Department of Urban and Regional Planning, Faculty of Landscape and Society, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway
                [b ]School of Spatial Planning and Development, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author.
                Article
                S2210-6707(21)00463-7 103182
                10.1016/j.scs.2021.103182
                8437688
                0e4122a8-114f-46a4-b846-ce76cccdfc36
                © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

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