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      Antibacterial steroidal alkaloids from Holarrhena antidysenteriaca

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          Abstract

          Two new steroidal alkaloids, isoconkuressine and N-formylconessimine, together with 6 known steroidal alkaloids including conkuressine, conessine, isoconessimine, conimine, conarrhimine, and funtudienine, were isolated from the seeds of Holarrhena antidysenteriaca Wall.ex A.DC. Their intrinsic antibacterial activities and synergistic effects with penicillin and vancomycin were analyzed in methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Two of the steroidal alkaloids including one new compound ( N-formylconessimine) showed potential antibacterial activity and possessed synergistic effects with penicillin and vancomycin, respectively.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Testosterone therapy in men with androgen deficiency syndromes: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

          Our objective was to update the guidelines for the evaluation and treatment of androgen deficiency syndromes in adult men published previously in 2006. The Task Force was composed of a chair, selected by the Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee of The Endocrine Society, five additional experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration. We recommend making a diagnosis of androgen deficiency only in men with consistent symptoms and signs and unequivocally low serum testosterone levels. We suggest the measurement of morning total testosterone level by a reliable assay as the initial diagnostic test. We recommend confirmation of the diagnosis by repeating the measurement of morning total testosterone and, in some men in whom total testosterone is near the lower limit of normal or in whom SHBG abnormality is suspected by measurement of free or bioavailable testosterone level, using validated assays. We recommend testosterone therapy for men with symptomatic androgen deficiency to induce and maintain secondary sex characteristics and to improve their sexual function, sense of well-being, muscle mass and strength, and bone mineral density. We recommend against starting testosterone therapy in patients with breast or prostate cancer, a palpable prostate nodule or induration or prostate-specific antigen greater than 4 ng/ml or greater than 3 ng/ml in men at high risk for prostate cancer such as African-Americans or men with first-degree relatives with prostate cancer without further urological evaluation, hematocrit greater than 50%, untreated severe obstructive sleep apnea, severe lower urinary tract symptoms with International Prostate Symptom Score above 19, or uncontrolled or poorly controlled heart failure. When testosterone therapy is instituted, we suggest aiming at achieving testosterone levels during treatment in the mid-normal range with any of the approved formulations, chosen on the basis of the patient's preference, consideration of pharmacokinetics, treatment burden, and cost. Men receiving testosterone therapy should be monitored using a standardized plan.
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            Gonadal steroids and body composition, strength, and sexual function in men.

            Current approaches to diagnosing testosterone deficiency do not consider the physiological consequences of various testosterone levels or whether deficiencies of testosterone, estradiol, or both account for clinical manifestations. We provided 198 healthy men 20 to 50 years of age with goserelin acetate (to suppress endogenous testosterone and estradiol) and randomly assigned them to receive a placebo gel or 1.25 g, 2.5 g, 5 g, or 10 g of testosterone gel daily for 16 weeks. Another 202 healthy men received goserelin acetate, placebo gel or testosterone gel, and anastrozole (to suppress the conversion of testosterone to estradiol). Changes in the percentage of body fat and in lean mass were the primary outcomes. Subcutaneous- and intraabdominal-fat areas, thigh-muscle area and strength, and sexual function were also assessed. The percentage of body fat increased in groups receiving placebo or 1.25 g or 2.5 g of testosterone daily without anastrozole (mean testosterone level, 44±13 ng per deciliter, 191±78 ng per deciliter, and 337±173 ng per deciliter, respectively). Lean mass and thigh-muscle area decreased in men receiving placebo and in those receiving 1.25 g of testosterone daily without anastrozole. Leg-press strength fell only with placebo administration. In general, sexual desire declined as the testosterone dose was reduced. The amount of testosterone required to maintain lean mass, fat mass, strength, and sexual function varied widely in men. Androgen deficiency accounted for decreases in lean mass, muscle size, and strength; estrogen deficiency primarily accounted for increases in body fat; and both contributed to the decline in sexual function. Our findings support changes in the approach to evaluation and management of hypogonadism in men. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00114114.).
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              Relative impact of oxidative stress on male reproductive function.

               Robby Sikka (2001)
              Impairment of normal spermatogenesis and sperm function are the most common causes of male factor infertility. Abnormal sperm function is difficult to evaluate and treat. There is a lack of understanding of the factors contributing to normal and abnormal sperm function leading to infertility. Many recent studies indicate that oxygen-derived free radicals induce damage to spermatozoa. The excessive generation of these reactive oxygen species (superoxide, hydroxyl, nitric oxide, peroxide, peroxynitrile) by immature and abnormal spermatozoa and by contaminating leukocytes associated with genitourinary tract inflammation have been identified with idiopathic male infertility. Mammalian spermatozoa membranes are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. This makes them very susceptible to oxygen-induced damage, which is mediated by lipid peroxidation. In a normal situation, the antioxidant mechanisms present in the reproductive tissues and their secretions are likely to quench these reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protect against oxidative damage to gonadal cells and mature spermatozoa. During chronic disease states, aging, toxin exposure, or genitourinary infection/inflammation, these cellular antioxidant mechanisms downplay and create a situation called oxidative stress. Thus, a balance between ROS generation and antioxidant capacity plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of disease state. Recent efforts towards the development of new reliable assays to evaluate this oxidative stress status have resulted in the establishment of ROS-TAC score. Such assessment of oxidative stress status (OSS) may help in designing newer modes of male factor infertility treatment by suitable antioxidants.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CJNM
                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                Elsevier
                1875-5364
                20 July 2017
                : 15
                : 7
                : 540-545
                Affiliations
                1School of Life Science and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China
                2School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China
                3Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design & Discovery of Ministry of Education, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: SUN Bo-Hang, Tel: 86-24-23986482, Fax: 86-24-23986460, E-mail: sunbohang1978@ 123456163.com

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Article
                S1875-5364(17)30080-8
                10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30080-8
                28807228
                Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funding
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province
                Award ID: 201602208
                This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (No. 201602208).

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