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      Antibacterial steroidal alkaloids from Holarrhena antidysenteriaca

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          Two new steroidal alkaloids, isoconkuressine and N-formylconessimine, together with 6 known steroidal alkaloids including conkuressine, conessine, isoconessimine, conimine, conarrhimine, and funtudienine, were isolated from the seeds of Holarrhena antidysenteriaca Wall.ex A.DC. Their intrinsic antibacterial activities and synergistic effects with penicillin and vancomycin were analyzed in methicillin sensitive staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Two of the steroidal alkaloids including one new compound ( N-formylconessimine) showed potential antibacterial activity and possessed synergistic effects with penicillin and vancomycin, respectively.

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          Relative impact of oxidative stress on male reproductive function.

           Robby Sikka (2001)
          Impairment of normal spermatogenesis and sperm function are the most common causes of male factor infertility. Abnormal sperm function is difficult to evaluate and treat. There is a lack of understanding of the factors contributing to normal and abnormal sperm function leading to infertility. Many recent studies indicate that oxygen-derived free radicals induce damage to spermatozoa. The excessive generation of these reactive oxygen species (superoxide, hydroxyl, nitric oxide, peroxide, peroxynitrile) by immature and abnormal spermatozoa and by contaminating leukocytes associated with genitourinary tract inflammation have been identified with idiopathic male infertility. Mammalian spermatozoa membranes are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids. This makes them very susceptible to oxygen-induced damage, which is mediated by lipid peroxidation. In a normal situation, the antioxidant mechanisms present in the reproductive tissues and their secretions are likely to quench these reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protect against oxidative damage to gonadal cells and mature spermatozoa. During chronic disease states, aging, toxin exposure, or genitourinary infection/inflammation, these cellular antioxidant mechanisms downplay and create a situation called oxidative stress. Thus, a balance between ROS generation and antioxidant capacity plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of disease state. Recent efforts towards the development of new reliable assays to evaluate this oxidative stress status have resulted in the establishment of ROS-TAC score. Such assessment of oxidative stress status (OSS) may help in designing newer modes of male factor infertility treatment by suitable antioxidants.
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            Tongkat Ali (Eurycoma longifolia Jack): a review on its ethnobotany and pharmacological importance.

            Eurycoma longifolia Jack is an herbal medicinal plant of South-East Asian origin, popularly recognized as 'Tongkat Ali.' The plant parts have been traditionally used for its antimalarial, aphrodisiac, anti-diabetic, antimicrobial and anti-pyretic activities, which have also been proved scientifically. The plant parts are rich in various bioactive compounds (like eurycomaoside, eurycolactone, eurycomalactone, eurycomanone, and pasakbumin-B) among which the alkaloids and quassinoids form a major portion. Even though toxicity and safety evaluation studies have been pursued, still a major gap exists in providing scientific base for commercial utilization and clearance of the Tongkat Ali products with regard to consumer's safety. The present review aims at reviewing the research works undertaken till date, on this plant in order to provide sufficient baseline information for future works and for commercial exploitation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Validation of the erection hardness score.

              Erection hardness is a fundamental component of erectile function, and is a very specific and easily monitored outcome. The Erection Hardness Score (EHS) is a single-item, patient-reported outcome (PRO) for scoring erection hardness. The aim of this article is to report the psychometric validation of the EHS. The dataset (N = 307) was from a multinational sildenafil trial (efficacy in the treatment of erectile dysfunction [ED]) with a 2-week screening phase, a 6-week double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment phase, and a 6-week open-label extension. Test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient), quality and distribution of responses, known-groups validity (ability to differentiate between ED severity groups defined by the International Index of Erectile Function [IIEF] questionnaire), convergent validity (Pearson correlation coefficients with domain scores of the IIEF and the Quality of Erection Questionnaire [QEQ]), treatment responsiveness, and clinically important difference. The EHS demonstrated good test-retest reliability, acceptable quality and distribution of responses, known-groups validity against the IIEF (including clear differentiation between normal and impaired erectile function), moderate-to-strong convergent validity against the prespecified domains of the IIEF and QEQ, and high treatment responsiveness. The EHS has desirable measurement properties, including being highly responsive to treatment. This one-item PRO is robust and easy to use for evaluating erection hardness. Psychometric analysis supports the use of the EHS as a simple, reliable, and valid tool for the assessment of erection hardness in clinical trials research.

                Author and article information

                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                20 July 2017
                : 15
                : 7
                : 540-545
                1School of Life Science and Biopharmaceutical Sciences, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China
                2School of Traditional Chinese Materia Medica, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China
                3Key Laboratory of Structure-Based Drug Design & Discovery of Ministry of Education, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, Shenyang 110016, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: SUN Bo-Hang, Tel: 86-24-23986482, Fax: 86-24-23986460, E-mail: sunbohang1978@

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funded by: Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province
                Award ID: 201602208
                This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning Province (No. 201602208).


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