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      CD38-targeted Immuno-PET of Multiple Myeloma: From Xenograft Models to First-in-Human Imaging

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          Most cited references 43

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          Cancer statistics, 2016.

          Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected by the National Cancer Institute (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results [SEER] Program), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (National Program of Cancer Registries), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2016, 1,685,210 new cancer cases and 595,690 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. Overall cancer incidence trends (13 oldest SEER registries) are stable in women, but declining by 3.1% per year in men (from 2009-2012), much of which is because of recent rapid declines in prostate cancer diagnoses. The cancer death rate has dropped by 23% since 1991, translating to more than 1.7 million deaths averted through 2012. Despite this progress, death rates are increasing for cancers of the liver, pancreas, and uterine corpus, and cancer is now the leading cause of death in 21 states, primarily due to exceptionally large reductions in death from heart disease. Among children and adolescents (aged birth-19 years), brain cancer has surpassed leukemia as the leading cause of cancer death because of the dramatic therapeutic advances against leukemia. Accelerating progress against cancer requires both increased national investment in cancer research and the application of existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population.
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            International Myeloma Working Group consensus criteria for response and minimal residual disease assessment in multiple myeloma.

            Treatment of multiple myeloma has substantially changed over the past decade with the introduction of several classes of new effective drugs that have greatly improved the rates and depth of response. Response criteria in multiple myeloma were developed to use serum and urine assessment of monoclonal proteins and bone marrow assessment (which is relatively insensitive). Given the high rates of complete response seen in patients with multiple myeloma with new treatment approaches, new response categories need to be defined that can identify responses that are deeper than those conventionally defined as complete response. Recent attempts have focused on the identification of residual tumour cells in the bone marrow using flow cytometry or gene sequencing. Furthermore, sensitive imaging techniques can be used to detect the presence of residual disease outside of the bone marrow. Combining these new methods, the International Myeloma Working Group has defined new response categories of minimal residual disease negativity, with or without imaging-based absence of extramedullary disease, to allow uniform reporting within and outside clinical trials. In this Review, we clarify several aspects of disease response assessment, along with endpoints for clinical trials, and highlight future directions for disease response assessments.
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              Biodistribution of 89Zr-trastuzumab and PET imaging of HER2-positive lesions in patients with metastatic breast cancer.

              We performed a feasibility study to determine the optimal dosage and time of administration of the monoclonal antibody zirconium-89 ((89)Zr)-trastuzumab to enable positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive lesions. Fourteen patients with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer received 37 MBq of (89)Zr-trastuzumab at one of three doses (10 or 50 mg for those who were trastuzumab-naive and 10 mg for those who were already on trastuzumab treatment). The patients underwent at least two PET scans between days 2 and 5. The results of the study showed that the best time for assessment of (89)Zr-trastuzumab uptake by tumors was 4-5 days after the injection. For optimal PET-scan results, trastuzumab-naive patients required a 50 mg dose of (89)Zr-trastuzumab, and patients already on trastuzumab treatment required a 10 mg dose. The accumulation of (89)Zr-trastuzumab in lesions allowed PET imaging of most of the known lesions and some that had been undetected earlier. The relative uptake values (RUVs) (mean +/- SEM) were 12.8 +/- 5.8, 4.1 +/- 1.6, and 3.5 +/- 4.2 in liver, bone, and brain lesions, respectively, and 5.9 +/- 2.4, 2.8 +/- 0.7, 4.0 +/- 0.7, and 0.20 +/- 0.1 in normal liver, spleen, kidneys, and brain tissue, respectively. PET scanning after administration of (89)Zr-trastuzumab at appropriate doses allows visualization and quantification of uptake in HER2-positive lesions in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Radiology
                Radiology
                Radiological Society of North America (RSNA)
                0033-8419
                1527-1315
                June 2020
                June 2020
                : 295
                : 3
                : 606-615
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Department of Radiology (G.A.U., N.B.S., C.C.R., R.M., L.M.C., S.K.L., J.S.L.), Department of Medical Physics (J.A.O., A.S.K.), Myeloma Service, Department of Medicine (E.S., C.O.L.), and Molecular Pharmacology Program (J.S.L.), Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Ave, New York, NY 10065; and Department of Radiology, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY (G.A.U., C.C.R., J.S.L.).
                Article
                10.1148/radiol.2020192621
                © 2020
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