5
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: not found
      • Article: not found

      New approaches to the design and discovery of therapies to prevent erectile dysfunction

      ,

      Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery

      Informa Healthcare

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 166

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Superoxide dismutases: role in redox signaling, vascular function, and diseases.

          Excessive reactive oxygen species Revised abstract, especially superoxide anion (O₂•-), play important roles in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension and atherosclerosis. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) are the major antioxidant defense systems against (O₂•-), which consist of three isoforms of SOD in mammals: the cytoplasmic Cu/ZnSOD (SOD1), the mitochondrial MnSOD (SOD2), and the extracellular Cu/ZnSOD (SOD3), all of which require catalytic metal (Cu or Mn) for their activation. Recent evidence suggests that in each subcellular location, SODs catalyze the conversion of (O₂•-), H2O2, which may participate in cell signaling. In addition, SODs play a critical role in inhibiting oxidative inactivation of nitric oxide, thereby preventing peroxynitrite formation and endothelial and mitochondrial dysfunction. The importance of each SOD isoform is further illustrated by studies from the use of genetically altered mice and viral-mediated gene transfer. Given the essential role of SODs in cardiovascular disease, the concept of antioxidant therapies, that is, reinforcement of endogenous antioxidant defenses to more effectively protect against oxidative stress, is of substantial interest. However, the clinical evidence remains controversial. In this review, we will update the role of each SOD in vascular biologies, physiologies, and pathophysiologies such as atherosclerosis, hypertension, and angiogenesis. Because of the importance of metal cofactors in the activity of SODs, we will also discuss how each SOD obtains catalytic metal in the active sites. Finally, we will discuss the development of future SOD-dependent therapeutic strategies.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            The likely worldwide increase in erectile dysfunction between 1995 and 2025 and some possible policy consequences.

            To project the likely worldwide increase in the prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) over the next 25 years, and to identify and discuss some possible health-policy consequences using the recent developments in the UK as a case study. Using the United Nations projected male population distributions by quinquennial age groups for 2025, the prevalence rates for ED were applied from the Massachusetts Male Aging Study (MMAS) to calculate the likely incidence of ED. The MMAS has the advantage of being the first study to provide population-based rates rather than rates based on clinical samples. All the projections were age-adjusted. It is estimated that in 1995 there were over 152 million men worldwide who experienced ED; the projections for 2025 show a prevalence of approximately 322 million with ED, an increase of nearly 170 million men. The largest projected increases were in the developing world, i.e. Africa, Asia and South America. The likely worldwide increase in the prevalence of ED (associated with rapidly ageing populations) combined with newly available and highly publicized medical treatments, will raise challenging policy issues in nearly all countries. Already under-funded national health systems will be confronted with unanticipated resource requests and challenges to existing government funding priorities. The projected trends represent a serious challenge for healthcare policy makers to develop and implement policies to prevent or alleviate ED.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Oxidation of tetrahydrobiopterin leads to uncoupling of endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase in hypertension

                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
                Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
                Informa Healthcare
                1746-0441
                1746-045X
                September 12 2014
                September 06 2014
                : 9
                : 12
                : 1447-1469
                Article
                10.1517/17460441.2014.949234
                © 2014

                Comments

                Comment on this article