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Transdermal magnesium – myth or reality?

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Trace Elements and Electrolytes

Dustri-Verlgag Dr. Karl Feistle

magnesium, absorption, skin


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      Abstract

      Abstract. The importance of magnesium and the positive effects of magnesium substitution in various diseases are extensively documented [ 1 , 2 ]. Magnesium compounds are widely used as medicinal and dietary supplements. The effectiveness of oral magnesium substitution for the treatment of magnesium deficiency is beyond controversy. However, the scientific seriousness of oral magnesium substitution has become questioned for several years through intensive marketing of magnesium-containing sprays for topical application. In both, specialist and lay press and on the internet, there are increasing numbers of articles claiming the effectiveness and superiority of magnesium oil over an oral magnesium intake. Magnesium oil is no real oil but a concentrated magnesium chloride solution which is sprayed on the skin. The transdermal absorption of magnesium in comparison to oral supplementation is presented as being more effective on the one hand due to nearly 100% absorption and on the other hand as it is associated with fewer side effects because of bypassing the intestinal tract. For proving this, various publications are mentioned.


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      Most cited references 12

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      The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration.

      Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analysis) Statement-a reporting guideline published in 1999-there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions. The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this Explanation and Elaboration document, we explain the meaning and rationale for each checklist item. For each item, we include an example of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature. The PRISMA Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (www.prisma-statement.org) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses.
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        Initial pH, base deficit, lactate, anion gap, strong ion difference, and strong ion gap predict outcome from major vascular injury.

        This study determines whether acid-base data obtained in the emergency department correlate with outcome from major vascular injury. Observational, retrospective record review of trauma patients requiring vascular repair (torso or extremity, January 1988 to December 1997). Data included age, Injury Severity Score, injury mechanism, survival, laboratory profiling, calculated anion gap, strong ion difference, and strong ion gap. Patients were divided into survivors and nonsurvivors with comparison by Student's t-test; significance was assumed for p or = 5 mmol/L, and strong ion gap > or = 5 mEq/L. All of the acid-base descriptors were strongly associated with outcome, but the strong ion gap discriminated most strongly with an area under the receiver operator characteristic of 0.991 (95% confidence interval, 0.972-0.998). The initial emergency department acid-base variables of pH, base deficit, lactate, anion gap, apparent strong ion difference, and strong ion gap discriminate survivors from non-survivors of major vascular injury. The strong ion gap is most strongly predictive of mortality following major vascular trauma.
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          Selenium, selenoproteins and human health: a review.

          Selenium is of fundamental importance to human health. It is an essential component of several major metabolic pathways, including thyroid hormone metabolism, antioxidant defence systems, and immune function. The decline in blood selenium concentration in the UK and other European Union countries has therefore several potential public health implications, particularly in relation to the chronic disease prevalence of the Western world such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Ten years have elapsed since recommended dietary intakes of selenium were introduced on the basis of blood glutathione peroxidase activity. Since then 30 new selenoproteins have been identified, of which 15 have been purified to allow characterisation of their biological function. The long term health implications in relation to declining selenium intakes have not yet been thoroughly examined, yet the implicit importance of selenium to human health is recognised universally. Selenium is incorporated as selenocysteine at the active site of a wide range of selenoproteins. The four glutathione peroxidase enzymes (classical GPx1, gastrointestinal GPx2, plasma GPx3, phospholipid hydroperoxide GPx4)) which represent a major class of functionally important selenoproteins, were the first to be characterised. Thioredoxin reductase (TR) is a recently identified seleno-cysteine containing enzyme which catalyzes the NADPH dependent reduction of thioredoxin and therefore plays a regulatory role in its metabolic activity. Approximately 60% of Se in plasma is incorporated in selenoprotein P which contains 10 Se atoms per molecule as selenocysteine, and may serve as a transport protein for Se. However, selenoprotein-P is also expressed in many tissues which suggests that although it may facilitate whole body Se distribution, this may not be its sole function. A second major class of selenoproteins are the iodothyronine deiodinase enzymes which catalyse the 5'5-mono-deiodination of the prohormone thyroxine (T4) to the active thyroid hormone 3,3'5-triiodothyronine (T3). Sperm capsule selenoprotein is localised in the mid-peice portion of spermatozoa where it stabilises the integrity of the sperm flagella. Se intake effects tissue concentrations of selenoprotein W which is reported to be necessary for muscle metabolism. It is of great concern that the health implications of the decline in Se status in the UK over the past two decades have not been systematically investigated. It is well recognised that dietary selenium is important for a healthy immune response. There is also evidence that Se has a protective effect against some forms of cancer; that it may enhance male fertility; decrease cardiovascular disease mortality, and regulate the inflammatory mediators in asthma. The potential influence of Se on these chronic diseases within the European population are important considerations when assessing Se requirement.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Trace Elements and Electrolytes
            TE
            Dustri-Verlgag Dr. Karl Feistle
            0946-2104
            2017
            April 01 2017
            : 34
            : 04
            : 45-48
            10.5414/TEX01481
            © 2017
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            Keywords:

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