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      Solanumplastisexum, an enigmatic new bush tomato from the Australian Monsoon Tropics exhibiting breeding system fluidity

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          Abstract

          Abstract

          A bush tomato that has evaded classification by solanologists for decades has been identified and is described as a new species belonging to the Australian “ Solanum dioicum group” of the Ord Victoria Plain biogeographic region in the monsoon tropics of the Northern Territory. Although now recognised to be andromonoecious, S. plastisexum Martine & McDonnell, sp. nov. exhibits multiple reproductive phenotypes, with solitary perfect flowers, a few staminate flowers or with cymes composed of a basal hermaphrodite and an extended rachis of several to many staminate flowers. When in fruit, the distal rachis may abcise and drop. A member of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum , Solanum plastisexum is allied to the S. eburneum Symon species group. Morphometric analyses presented here reveal that S. plastisexum differs statistically from all of its closest relatives including S. eburneum , S. diversiflorum F. Meull., S. jobsonii Martine, J.Cantley & L.M.Lacey, S. succosum A.R.Bean & Albr. and S. watneyi Martine & Frawley in both reproductive and vegetative characters. We present evidence supporting the recognition of S. plastisexum as a distinctive entity, a description of the species, representative photographs, a map showing the distribution of members of the S. eburneum species group and a key to the andromonoecious Solanum species of the Northern Territory of Australia. This new species is apparently labile in its reproductive expression, lending to its epithet, and is a model for the sort of sexual fluidity that is present throughout the plant kingdom.

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          The different forms of flowers on plants of the same species, by Charles Darwin.

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            A phylogenetic framework for evolutionary study of the nightshades (Solanaceae): a dated 1000-tip tree

            Background The Solanaceae is a plant family of great economic importance. Despite a wealth of phylogenetic work on individual clades and a deep knowledge of particular cultivated species such as tomato and potato, a robust evolutionary framework with a dated molecular phylogeny for the family is still lacking. Here we investigate molecular divergence times for Solanaceae using a densely-sampled species-level phylogeny. We also review the fossil record of the family to derive robust calibration points, and estimate a chronogram using an uncorrelated relaxed molecular clock. Results Our densely-sampled phylogeny shows strong support for all previously identified clades of Solanaceae and strongly supported relationships between the major clades, particularly within Solanum. The Tomato clade is shown to be sister to section Petota, and the Regmandra clade is the first branching member of the Potato clade. The minimum age estimates for major splits within the family provided here correspond well with results from previous studies, indicating splits between tomato & potato around 8 Million years ago (Ma) with a 95% highest posterior density (HPD) 7–10 Ma, Solanum & Capsicum c. 19 Ma (95% HPD 17–21), and Solanum & Nicotiana c. 24 Ma (95% HPD 23–26). Conclusions Our large time-calibrated phylogeny provides a significant step towards completing a fully sampled species-level phylogeny for Solanaceae, and provides age estimates for the whole family. The chronogram now includes 40% of known species and all but two monotypic genera, and is one of the best sampled angiosperm family phylogenies both in terms of taxon sampling and resolution published thus far. The increased resolution in the chronogram combined with the large increase in species sampling will provide much needed data for the examination of many biological questions using Solanaceae as a model system.
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              History and Concepts of Big Plant Genera

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                PhytoKeys
                PhytoKeys
                3
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:f7fce910-8e78-573f-9c77-7788555f8aad
                PhytoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2011
                1314-2003
                2019
                18 June 2019
                : 124
                : 39-55
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Biology, Bucknell University, 1 Dent Drive, Lewisburg, PA, USA Bucknell University Lewisburg United States of America
                [2 ] Department of Biology, San Francisco State University, 1600 Holloway Avenue, San Francisco, CA, USA San Francisco State University San Francisco United States of America
                [3 ] Northern Territory Herbarium, Alice Springs, Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Alice Springs, Northern Territory, 0870, Australia Department of Environment and Natural Resources Alice Springs Australia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Christopher T. Martine ( chris.martine@ 123456bucknell.edu )

                Academic editor: Sandra Knapp

                Article
                33526 urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:22e828e3-6afb-5a7e-adf2-a45df5106aff
                10.3897/phytokeys.124.33526
                6592974
                Angela J. McDonnell, Heather B. Wetreich, Jason T. Cantley, Peter Jobson, Christopher T. Martine

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                Funded by: Bucknell University 100006420 http://doi.org/10.13039/100006420
                Categories
                Research Article
                Solanaceae
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Conservation Biology
                Deserts and Arid Lands
                Floristics & Distribution
                Identification key
                Nomenclature
                Taxonomy
                Terrestrial
                Australasia
                Australia

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