In the current study, we investigated the effects of interferon-α (IFN-α) on proliferation and angiogenesis in neuroendocrine tumor disease. Using a panel of human neuroendocrine tumor cell lines, we confirmed functionally active IFN-α signaling by STAT activation and nuclear translocation as well as transactivation. IFN-α results in anchorage-dependent and -independent growth inhibition due to a delayed progression from S-phase to G2 phase of the cell cycle. This was due to substantial reduction in cellular cyclin B levels resulting in the inhibition of Cdc2 kinase activity. In parallel to growth inhibition, we observed a profound inhibition of VEGF gene transcription by IFN-α in human neuroendocrine tumor cells due to an Sp1/Sp3-dependent inhibition of VEGF promoter activity. Treatment of neuroendocrine tumors with IFN-α in nude mice resulted in growth inhibition and inhibition of angiogenesis. Furthermore, treatment of neuroendocrine tumor patients with IFN-α resulted in decreased VEGF expression as well as tumor angiogenesis in liver metastases. In summary, IFN-α acts via direct antiproliferative effects as well as inhibition of tumor angiogenesis mediated by suppression of VEGF gene expression in neuroendocrine tumor disease.