1
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: not found

      Chemical characteristics, leaching, and stability of the ubiquitous tire rubber-derived toxicant 6PPD-quinone

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPubMed
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          We here report chemical characteristics relevant to the fate and transport of the recently discovered environmental toxicant 6PPD-quinone (2-((4-methylpentan-2-yl)amino)-5-(phenylamino)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione or “6PPDQ”).

          Abstract

          We here report chemical characteristics relevant to the fate and transport of the recently discovered environmental toxicant 6PPD-quinone (2-((4-methylpentan-2-yl)amino)-5-(phenylamino)cyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione or “6PPDQ”). 6PPDQ is a transformation product of the tire rubber antioxidant 6PPD that is ubiquitous in roadway environments, including atmospheric particulate matter, soils, runoff, and receiving waters, after dispersal from tire rubber use and wear on roadways. The aqueous solubility and octanol–water partitioning coefficient ( i.e. log K OW) for 6PPDQ were measured to be 38 ± 10 μg L −1 and 4.30 ± 0.02, respectively. Within the context of analytical measurement and laboratory processing, sorption to various laboratory materials was evaluated, indicating that glass was largely inert but loss of 6PPDQ to other materials was common. Aqueous leaching simulations from tire tread wear particles (TWPs) indicated short term release of ∼5.2 μg 6PPDQ per gram TWP over 6 h under flow-through conditions. Aqueous stability tests observed a slight-to-moderate loss of 6PPDQ over 47 days (26 ± 3% loss) for pH 5, 7 and 9. These measured physicochemical properties suggest that 6PPDQ is generally poorly soluble but fairly stable over short time periods in simple aqueous systems. 6PPDQ can also leach readily from TWPs for subsequent environmental transport, posing high potential for adverse effects in local aquatic environments.

          Related collections

          Most cited references53

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Wear and Tear of Tyres: A Stealthy Source of Microplastics in the Environment

          Wear and tear from tyres significantly contributes to the flow of (micro-)plastics into the environment. This paper compiles the fragmented knowledge on tyre wear and tear characteristics, amounts of particles emitted, pathways in the environment, and the possible effects on humans. The estimated per capita emission ranges from 0.23 to 4.7 kg/year, with a global average of 0.81 kg/year. The emissions from car tyres (100%) are substantially higher than those of other sources of microplastics, e.g., airplane tyres (2%), artificial turf (12–50%), brake wear (8%) and road markings (5%). Emissions and pathways depend on local factors like road type or sewage systems. The relative contribution of tyre wear and tear to the total global amount of plastics ending up in our oceans is estimated to be 5–10%. In air, 3–7% of the particulate matter (PM2.5) is estimated to consist of tyre wear and tear, indicating that it may contribute to the global health burden of air pollution which has been projected by the World Health Organization (WHO) at 3 million deaths in 2012. The wear and tear also enters our food chain, but further research is needed to assess human health risks. It is concluded here that tyre wear and tear is a stealthy source of microplastics in our environment, which can only be addressed effectively if awareness increases, knowledge gaps on quantities and effects are being closed, and creative technical solutions are being sought. This requires a global effort from all stakeholders; consumers, regulators, industry and researchers alike.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            A ubiquitous tire rubber–derived chemical induces acute mortality in coho salmon

            In U.S. Pacific Northwest coho salmon ( Oncorhynchus kisutch ), stormwater exposure annually causes unexplained acute mortality when adult salmon migrate to urban creeks to reproduce. By investigating this phenomenon, we identified a highly toxic quinone transformation product of N-(1,3-dimethylbutyl)-N'-phenyl-p-phenylenediamine) (6PPD), a globally ubiquitous tire rubber antioxidant. Retrospective analysis of representative roadway runoff and stormwater-impacted creeks of the U.S. West Coast indicated widespread occurrence of 6PPD-quinone (<0.3-19 μg/L) at toxic concentrations (LC 50 of 0.8 ± 0.16 μg/L). These results reveal unanticipated risks of 6PPD antioxidants to an aquatic species and imply toxicological relevance for dissipated tire rubber residues.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: not found
              • Article: not found

              Tire wear particles in the aquatic environment - A review on generation, analysis, occurrence, fate and effects

                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                ESPICZ
                Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts
                Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2050-7887
                2050-7895
                May 25 2023
                2023
                : 25
                : 5
                : 901-911
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Urban Waters, Tacoma, WA, 98421, USA
                [2 ]Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 98195, USA
                [3 ]Interdisciplinary Arts and Sciences, University of Washington Tacoma, Tacoma, WA, 98421, USA
                Article
                10.1039/D3EM00047H
                32266971
                0ea21a09-4b51-4325-8a6a-634c714de1a4
                © 2023

                http://rsc.li/journals-terms-of-use#chorus

                History

                Comments

                Comment on this article