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      Time-dependence of Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) index in Chilean apples and berries Translated title: Influencia del tiempo de incubación sobre la capacidad antioxidante medida según FRAP, en manzanas y berries chilenos

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          Abstract

          We hypothesize that the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay that follows the reaction of Fe3+-TPTZ at 593 nm underestimates the antioxidant capacity of fruits, since the standardized time of the reaction (4 min) is not enough to titrate all the reducing compounds available. We measured FRAP, total phenolics and anthocyanins content in a variety of Chilean berry fruits (blueberries, blackberries, raspberries and strawberries) and apples (cv. Fuji, Granny Smith, Pink Lady, Red Delicious and Royal Gala). Taking into account the dependence of FRAP on the time course of the reaction, we propose to measure FRAP indexes after 1 min (FRAP-1), 30 min (FRAP-30) and 120 min (FRAP-120) of incubation. Most fruit extracts showed significant correlations between the antioxidant capacity and the incubation time, although in some cases the FRAP indexes did not correlate with the total phenolics and/or anthocyanins content. In fact, in apples and berries the correlation between anthocyanins content and FRAP indexes decreased with the incubation time. It is concluded that the fruit extracts analyzed require an incubation period higher than the established in the original experimental protocol to reach the equilibrium, due to the presence of a complex mixture of antioxidant compounds. In addition, a kinetic profile should be realized in each sample studied to establish the most suitable incubation period to titrate all the reactive antioxidant species.

          Translated abstract

          Se plantea que el ensayo de la capacidad antioxidante de frutas, medido según el poder reductor de hierro (FRAP), que sigue la reacción de Fe3+-TPTZ a 593 nm, subestima la capacidad antioxidante, debido a que el tiempo de reacción (4 min) no sería suficiente para que reaccionen todos los compuestos reductores disponibles en las muestras. Se analizó la capacidad antioxidante FRAP, el contenido de fenoles y de antocianinas en diversos berries (arándano, mora, frambuesa y frutilla) y manzanas (cv. Fuji, Granny Smith, Pink Lady, Red Delicious y Royal Gala). Tomando en cuenta la dependencia del tiempo de incubación en el valor FRAP, se propone medir los índices FRAP después de 1 min (FRAP-1), 30 min (FRAP-30) y 120 min (FRAP-120). Diversos extractos de las frutas analizadas mostraron una correlación significativa entre la capacidad antioxidante y el tiempo de incubación; sin embargo, en algunos casos los índices FRAP no se correlacionaron con el contenido de fenoles totales y/o antocianinas. En efecto, en manzanas y berries la correlación entre el contenido de antocianinas e índices FRAP disminuyó con el tiempo de incubación. Se concluye que los extractos analizados requieren un tiempo de incubación mayor al que establece el protocolo analítico original para alcanzar el equilibrio, debido a la presencia de una compleja mezcla de compuestos antioxidantes. Además, el perfil cinético de cada muestra debería ser estudiado para establecer el periodo de incubación más adecuado para titular todas las especies antioxidantes reactivas.

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          Apple phytochemicals and their health benefits

          Evidence suggests that a diet high in fruits and vegetables may decrease the risk of chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, and phytochemicals including phenolics, flavonoids and carotenoids from fruits and vegetables may play a key role in reducing chronic disease risk. Apples are a widely consumed, rich source of phytochemicals, and epidemiological studies have linked the consumption of apples with reduced risk of some cancers, cardiovascular disease, asthma, and diabetes. In the laboratory, apples have been found to have very strong antioxidant activity, inhibit cancer cell proliferation, decrease lipid oxidation, and lower cholesterol. Apples contain a variety of phytochemicals, including quercetin, catechin, phloridzin and chlorogenic acid, all of which are strong antioxidants. The phytochemical composition of apples varies greatly between different varieties of apples, and there are also small changes in phytochemicals during the maturation and ripening of the fruit. Storage has little to no effect on apple phytochemicals, but processing can greatly affect apple phytochemicals. While extensive research exists, a literature review of the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals has not been compiled to summarize this work. The purpose of this paper is to review the most recent literature regarding the health benefits of apples and their phytochemicals, phytochemical bioavailability and antioxidant behavior, and the effects of variety, ripening, storage and processing on apple phytochemicals.
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            Phenolic compounds and related enzymes as determinants of quality in fruits and vegetables

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              A systematic screening of total antioxidants in dietary plants.

              A predominantly plant-based diet reduces the risk for development of several chronic diseases. It is often assumed that antioxidants contribute to this protection, but results from intervention trials with single antioxidants administered as supplements quite consistently do not support any benefit. Because dietary plants contain several hundred different antioxidants, it would be useful to know the total concentration of electron-donating antioxidants (i.e., reductants) in individual items. Such data might be useful in the identification of the most beneficial dietary plants. We have assessed systematically total antioxidants in a variety of dietary plants used worldwide, including various fruits, berries, vegetables, cereals, nuts and pulses. When possible, we analyzed three or more samples of dietary plants from three different geographic regions in the world. Total antioxidants was assessed by the reduction of Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) (i.e., the FRAP assay), which occurred rapidly with all reductants with half-reaction reduction potentials above that of Fe(3+)/Fe(2+). The values, therefore, expressed the corresponding concentration of electron-donating antioxidants. Our results demonstrated that there is more than a 1000-fold difference among total antioxidants in various dietary plants. Plants that contain most antioxidants included members of several families, such as Rosaceae (dog rose, sour cherry, blackberry, strawberry, raspberry), Empetraceae (crowberry), Ericaceae (blueberry), Grossulariaceae (black currant), Juglandaceae (walnut), Asteraceae (sunflower seed), Punicaceae (pomegranate) and Zingiberaceae (ginger). In a Norwegian diet, fruits, berries and cereals contributed 43.6%, 27.1% and 11.7%, respectively, of the total intake of plant antioxidants. Vegetables contributed only 8.9%. The systematic analysis presented here will facilitate research into the nutritional role of the combined effect of antioxidants in dietary plants.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                September 2011
                : 61
                : 3
                : 323-332
                Article
                S0004-06222011000300013
                0ea772ca-44f2-4660-88d1-c6f84182cdef

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                FRAP,berries,apples,antioxidant capacity,incubation time,manzanas,capacidad antioxidante,tiempo de incubación

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