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      Seguin Form Board as an intelligence tool for young children in an Indian urban slum

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          Objective: The present study evaluates the concurrent and predictive validity of the Seguin Form Board Test (SFBT) as an intelligence tool for children in low- and middle-income countries.

          Methods: In a cohort of normal children, followed up in South India, two cross-sectional analyses were done at 3 and 7 years of age on 95 children. The SFBT and Vineland Social Maturity Scale (VSMS) were done at 3 years of age and Malin’s Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC) and the VSMS were done at 7 years of age, and the results were compared for concurrent and predictive validity for the SFBT.

          Results: Intelligence quotient and social quotient had positive correlations at 3 years of age, indicating fair concurrent validity. The SFBT done at around 3 years of age had good positive correlation with MISIC at 7 years of age, indicating good predictive validity.

          Conclusion: This study shows the utility of the SFBT as a community-based intelligence tool with acceptable concurrent and predictive validity.

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          Most cited references 31

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          Lost in translation: methodological considerations in cross-cultural research.

          In cross-cultural child development research there is often a need to translate instruments and instructions to languages other than English. Typically, the translation process focuses on ensuring linguistic equivalence. However, establishment of linguistic equivalence through translation techniques is often not sufficient to guard against validity threats. In addition to linguistic equivalence, functional equivalence, cultural equivalence, and metric equivalence are factors that need to be considered when research methods are translated to other languages. This article first examines cross-cultural threats to validity in research. Next, each of the preceding factors is illustrated with examples from the literature. Finally, suggestions for incorporating each factor into research studies of child development are given.
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            Molecular and spatial epidemiology of cryptosporidiosis in children in a semiurban community in South India.

            Cryptosporidium spp. are a leading cause of diarrhea in Indian children, but there are no data for prevalent species or subgenotypes. Genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism and spatial analysis of cases using Geographical Information Systems technology was carried out for 53 children with cryptosporidial diarrhea in an urban slum. The two most common species were C. hominis (81%) and C. parvum (12%). Other species identified were C. felis and C. parvum (mouse genotype). Five subgenotypes were identified at the Cpgp40/15 locus. Subgenotype Ia predominated among C. hominis isolates, and all C. parvum isolates were subgenotype Ic. C. hominis infection was associated with a greater severity of diarrhea. Sequencing of the Cpgp40/15 alleles of C. felis and C. parvum (mouse genotype) revealed similarities to subgenotype IIa and C. meleagridis, respectively. Space-time analysis revealed two clusters of infection due to C. hominis Ia, with a peak in February 2005. This is the first study to demonstrate space-time clustering of a single subgenotype of C. hominis in a setting where cryptosporidiosis is endemic. Molecular characterization and spatial analysis have the potential to further the understanding of disease and transmission in the community.
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              Child development assessment tools in low-income and middle-income countries: how can we use them more appropriately?

              Global emphasis has shifted beyond reducing child survival rates to improving health and developmental trajectories in childhood. Optimum early childhood experience is believed to allow children to benefit fully from educational opportunities resulting in improved human capital. Investment in early childhood initiatives in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs) is increasing. These initiatives use early childhood developmental assessment tools (CDATs) as outcome measures. CDATs are also key measures in the evaluation of programmatic health initiatives in LMICs, influencing public health policy. Interpretation of CDAT outcomes requires understanding of their structure and psychometric properties. This article reviews the structure and main methods of CDAT development with specific considerations when applied in LMICs.

                Author and article information

                Family Medicine and Community Health
                Compuscript (Ireland )
                December 2017
                December 2017
                : 5
                : 4
                : 275-281
                1Developmental Paediatrics, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India
                2Department of Biostatistics, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India
                3Department of Gastrointestinal Sciences, Christian Medical College, Vellore, India
                aUniversity of California, Irvine, CA, USA
                Author notes
                CORRESPONDING AUTHOR: Dr. Beena Koshy, Professor and Head, Developmental Paediatrics, Christian Medical College, Vellore 632004, India; Tel.: +91-416-2283265; Fax: +91-416-2232103; E-mail: beenakurien@ 123456cmcvellore.ac.in
                Copyright © 2017 Family Medicine and Community Health

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 Unported License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. See https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.

                Self URI (journal page): http://fmch-journal.org/
                Original Research


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