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      Comparative proteomic analysis of tear fluid in Graves' disease with and without orbitopathy

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          Identification of tear fluid biomarkers in dry eye syndrome using iTRAQ quantitative proteomics.

          The proteins found in tears have an important role in the maintenance of the ocular surface and changes in the quality and quantity of tear components reflect changes in the health of the ocular surface. In this study, we have used quantitative proteomics, iTRAQ technology coupled with 2D-nanoLC-nano-ESI-MS/MS and with a statistical model to uncover proteins that are significantly and reliably changed in the tears of dry eye patients in an effort to reveal potential biomarker candidates. Fifty-six patients with dry eye and 40 healthy subjects were recruited for this study. In total, 93 tear proteins were identified with a ProtScore >or=2 (>or=99% confidence). Associated with dry eye were 6 up-regulated proteins, alpha-enolase, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1, S100 A8 (calgranulin A), S100 A9 (calgranulin B), S100 A4 and S100 A11 (calgizzarin) and 4 down-regulated proteins, prolactin-inducible protein (PIP), lipocalin-1, lactoferrin and lysozyme. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were evaluated for individual biomarker candidates and a biomarker panel. With the use of a 4-protein biomarker panel, the diagnostic accuracy for dry eye was 96% (sensitivity, 91.0%; specificity, 90.0%). Two biomarker candidates (alpha-enolase and S100 A4) generated from iTRAQ experiments were successfully verified using an ELISA assay. The levels of these 10 tear proteins reflect aqueous secretion deficiency by lacrimal gland, inflammatory status of the ocular surface. The clinical classification of the severity of the dry eye condition was successfully correlated to the proteomics by using three proteins that are associated with inflammation, alpha1-acid glycoprotein 1, S100 A8 and S100 A9. The nine tear protein biomarker candidates (except alpha1-acid glycoprotein 1) were also verified using an independent age-matched patient sample set. This study demonstrated that iTRAQ technology combined with 2D-nanoLC-nanoESI-MS/MS quantitative proteomics is a powerful tool for biomarker discovery.
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            In-depth analysis of the human tear proteome.

            The tears, a critical body fluid of the surface of the eye, contain an unknown number of molecules including proteins/peptides, lipids, small molecule metabolites, and electrolytes. There have been continued efforts for exploring the human tear proteome to develop biomarkers of disease. In this study, we used the high speed TripleTOF 5600 system as the platform to analyze the human tear proteome from healthy subjects (3 females and 1 male, average age: 36±14). We have identified 1543 proteins in the tears with less than 1% false discovery rate, which represents the largest number of human tear proteins reported to date. The data set was analyzed for gene ontology (GO) and compared with the human plasma proteome, NEIBank lacrimal gland gene dataset and NEIBank cornea gene dataset. This comprehensive tear protein list may serve as a reference list of human tear proteome for biomarker research of ocular diseases or establishment of MRM (Multiple Reaction Monitoring) assays for targeted analysis. Tear fluid is a useful and an accessible source not only for evaluating ocular surface tissues (cornea and conjunctiva), inflammation, lacrimal gland function and a number of disease conditions, such as dry eye as well as response to treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Zinc alpha 2-glycoprotein: a multidisciplinary protein.

              Zinc alpha 2-glycoprotein (ZAG) is a protein of interest because of its ability to play many important functions in the human body, including fertilization and lipid mobilization. After the discovery of this molecule, during the last 5 decades, various studies have been documented on its structure and functions, but still, it is considered as a protein with an unknown function. Its expression is regulated by glucocorticoids. Due to its high sequence homology with lipid-mobilizing factor and high expression in cancer cachexia, it is considered as a novel adipokine. On the other hand, structural organization and fold is similar to MHC class I antigen-presenting molecule; hence, ZAG may have a role in the expression of the immune response. The function of ZAG under physiologic and cancerous conditions remains mysterious but is considered as a tumor biomarker for various carcinomas. There are several unrelated functions that are attributed to ZAG, such as RNase activity, regulation of melanin production, hindering tumor proliferation, and transport of nephritic by-products. This article deals with the discussion of the major aspects of ZAG from its gene structure to function and metabolism.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Endocrinology
                Clin Endocrinol
                Wiley
                03000664
                November 2016
                November 2016
                July 01 2016
                : 85
                : 5
                : 805-812
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Hormone Laboratory; Department of Medical Biochemistry; Oslo University Hospital; Oslo Norway
                [2 ]Faculty of Medicine; Institute of Clinical Medicine; University of Oslo; Oslo Norway
                [3 ]Department of Endocrinology; Morbid Obesity and Preventive Medicine; Oslo University Hospital; Oslo Norway
                [4 ]University Department of Ophthalmology; Oslo University Hospital; Oslo Norway
                Article
                10.1111/cen.13122
                © 2016
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://doi.wiley.com/10.1111/cen.13122

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