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      Deep-Learning-Based Multispectral Image Reconstruction from Single Natural Color RGB Image—Enhancing UAV-Based Phenotyping

      , , , , , , ,
      Remote Sensing
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          Multispectral images (MSIs) are valuable for precision agriculture due to the extra spectral information acquired compared to natural color RGB (ncRGB) images. In this paper, we thus aim to generate high spatial MSIs through a robust, deep-learning-based reconstruction method using ncRGB images. Using the data from the agronomic research trial for maize and breeding research trial for rice, we first reproduced ncRGB images from MSIs through a rendering model, Model-True to natural color image (Model-TN), which was built using a benchmark hyperspectral image dataset. Subsequently, an MSI reconstruction model, Model-Natural color to Multispectral image (Model-NM), was trained based on prepared ncRGB (ncRGB-Con) images and MSI pairs, ensuring the model can use widely available ncRGB images as input. The integrated loss function of mean relative absolute error (MRAEloss) and spectral information divergence (SIDloss) were most effective during the building of both models, while models using the MRAEloss function were more robust towards variability between growing seasons and species. The reliability of the reconstructed MSIs was demonstrated by high coefficients of determination compared to ground truth values, using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as an example. The advantages of using “reconstructed” NDVI over Triangular Greenness Index (TGI), as calculated directly from RGB images, were illustrated by their higher capabilities in differentiating three levels of irrigation treatments on maize plants. This study emphasizes that the performance of MSI reconstruction models could benefit from an optimized loss function and the intermediate step of ncRGB image preparation. The ability of the developed models to reconstruct high-quality MSIs from low-cost ncRGB images will, in particular, promote the application for plant phenotyping in precision agriculture.

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          Adam: A Method for Stochastic Optimization

          We introduce Adam, an algorithm for first-order gradient-based optimization of stochastic objective functions, based on adaptive estimates of lower-order moments. The method is straightforward to implement, is computationally efficient, has little memory requirements, is invariant to diagonal rescaling of the gradients, and is well suited for problems that are large in terms of data and/or parameters. The method is also appropriate for non-stationary objectives and problems with very noisy and/or sparse gradients. The hyper-parameters have intuitive interpretations and typically require little tuning. Some connections to related algorithms, on which Adam was inspired, are discussed. We also analyze the theoretical convergence properties of the algorithm and provide a regret bound on the convergence rate that is comparable to the best known results under the online convex optimization framework. Empirical results demonstrate that Adam works well in practice and compares favorably to other stochastic optimization methods. Finally, we discuss AdaMax, a variant of Adam based on the infinity norm. Published as a conference paper at the 3rd International Conference for Learning Representations, San Diego, 2015
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              Vegetation canopy reflectance

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Remote Sensing
                Remote Sensing
                MDPI AG
                2072-4292
                March 2022
                March 05 2022
                : 14
                : 5
                : 1272
                Article
                10.3390/rs14051272
                0eaeec49-08de-4cb2-82f9-eb1cd0e02a1f
                © 2022

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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