The design system based on aesthetic principles is the most representative in the field of design and has a certain significance for the research and construction of design aesthetics and the development of design education. Therefore, this paper studies the application of pattern recognition system in the field of design based on aesthetic principles and designs a new type of aesthetic principle design system based on pattern recognition in computer vision. This paper proposes pattern similarity measurement and image preprocessing technology to improve the traditional aesthetic principle design system through pattern recognition and then further refine the research of the whole system through histogram equalization and gamma correction. Finally, the MNIST dataset experiment is used to verify the effect of multicolumn convolutional neural network pattern recognition on the aesthetic principle design system. The questionnaire survey experiment in this article and the traditional comparative experiment show that 76% of the public are very satisfied with this design system based on the aesthetic principles of pattern recognition in computer vision. Also, the improved aesthetic principle system scores as high as 90–95 points.