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      Evolutionary history of Pacific salmon in dynamic environments

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          Abstract

          Contemporary evolution of Pacific salmon ( Oncorhynchus spp.) is best viewed in the context of the evolutionary history of the species and the dynamic ecosystems they inhabit. Speciation was complete by the late Miocene, leaving c. six million years for intraspecific diversification. Following the most recent glacial maximum, large areas became available for recolonization. Current intraspecific diversity is thus the product of recent evolution overlaid onto divergent historical lineages forged during recurrent episodes of Pleistocene glaciation. In northwestern North America, dominant habitat features have been relatively stable for the past 5000 years, but salmon ecosystems remain dynamic because of disturbance regimes (volcanic eruptions, landslides, wildfires, floods, variations in marine and freshwater productivity) that occur on a variety of temporal and spatial scales. These disturbances both create selective pressures for adaptive responses by salmon and inhibit long-term divergence by periodically extirpating local populations and creating episodic dispersal events that erode emerging differences. Recent anthropogenic changes are replicated pervasively across the landscape and interrupt processes that allow natural habitat recovery. If anthropogenic changes can be shaped to produce disturbance regimes that more closely mimic (in both space and time) those under which the species evolved, Pacific salmon should be well-equipped to deal with future challenges, just as they have throughout their evolutionary history.

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          Adaptation to natural flow regimes.

          Floods and droughts are important features of most running water ecosystems, but the alteration of natural flow regimes by recent human activities, such as dam building, raises questions related to both evolution and conservation. Among organisms inhabiting running waters, what adaptations exist for surviving floods and droughts? How will the alteration of the frequency, timing and duration of flow extremes affect flood- and drought-adapted organisms? How rapidly can populations evolve in response to altered flow regimes? Here, we identify three modes of adaptation (life history, behavioral and morphological) that plants and animals use to survive floods and/or droughts. The mode of adaptation that an organism has determines its vulnerability to different kinds of flow regime alteration. The rate of evolution in response to flow regime alteration remains an open question. Because humans have now altered the flow regimes of most rivers and many streams, understanding the link between fitness and flow regime is crucial for the effective management and restoration of running water ecosystems.
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            A review of local adaptation in Salmonidac, with particular reference to Pacific and Atlantic salmon

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              CONNECTIVITY, FRAGMENTATION, AND EXTINCTION RISK IN DENDRITIC METAPOPULATIONS

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Evol Appl
                Evol Appl
                eva
                Evolutionary Applications
                Blackwell Publishing Ltd (Oxford, UK )
                1752-4571
                1752-4571
                May 2008
                : 1
                : 2
                : 189-206
                Affiliations
                [1 ]simpleNorthwest Fisheries Science Center Seattle, WA, USA
                [2 ]simpleEnvironmental Conservation Division
                Author notes
                Robin Waples, Northwest Fisheries Science Center, 2725 Montlake Boulevard East, Seattle, WA, USA. Tel.: 206 860 3254; fax: 206 860 3335; e-mail: robin.waples@ 123456noaa.gov
                Article
                10.1111/j.1752-4571.2008.00023.x
                3352440
                25567626
                0ebeb9f3-dc92-46fa-b6df-17d75cebeeb0
                Journal compilation © 2008 Blackwell Publishing Ltd. No claim to original US government works
                History
                : 09 November 2007
                : 28 January 2008
                Categories
                Synthesis

                Evolutionary Biology
                habitat,diversity,holocene,disturbance regimes,glaciation,pleistocene,oncorhynchus
                Evolutionary Biology
                habitat, diversity, holocene, disturbance regimes, glaciation, pleistocene, oncorhynchus

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