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Deepwater source variations during the last climatic cycle and their impact on the global deepwater circulation

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      Smoothing and Differentiation of Data by Simplified Least Squares Procedures.

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        The surface of the ice-age Earth.

          (1976)
        In the Northern Hemisphere the 18,000 B.P. world differed strikingly from the present in the huge land-based ice sheets, reaching approximately 3 km in thickness, and in a dramatic increase in the extent of pack ice and marine-based ice sheets. In the Southern Hemisphere the most striking contrast was the greater extent of sea ice. On land, grasslands, steppes, and deserts spread at the expense of forests. This change in vegetation, together with extensive areas of permanent ice and sandy outwash plains, caused an increase in global surface albedo over modern values. Sea level was lower by at least 85 m. The 18,000 B.P. oceans were characterized by: (i) marked steepening of thermal gradients along polar frontal systems, particularly in the North Atlantic and Antarctic; (ii) an equatorward displacement of polar frontal systems; (iii) general cooling of most surface waters, with a global average of -2.3 degrees C; (iv) increased cooling and up-welling along equatorial divergences in the Pacific and Atlantic; (v) low temperatures extending equatorward along the western coast of Africa, Australia, and South America, indicating increased upwelling and advection of cool waters; and (vi) nearly stable positions and temperatures of the central gyres in the subtropical Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian oceans.
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          North Atlantic thermohaline circulation during the past 20,000 years linked to high-latitude surface temperature

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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Paleoceanography
            Paleoceanography
            American Geophysical Union (AGU)
            08838305
            June 1988
            June 1988
            : 3
            : 3
            : 343-360
            10.1029/PA003i003p00343
            © 1988

            http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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