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      Anti-inflammatory cytokines in endometriosis

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          Transforming growth factor-beta regulation of immune responses.

          Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is a potent regulatory cytokine with diverse effects on hemopoietic cells. The pivotal function of TGF-beta in the immune system is to maintain tolerance via the regulation of lymphocyte proliferation, differentiation, and survival. In addition, TGF-beta controls the initiation and resolution of inflammatory responses through the regulation of chemotaxis, activation, and survival of lymphocytes, natural killer cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, mast cells, and granulocytes. The regulatory activity of TGF-beta is modulated by the cell differentiation state and by the presence of inflammatory cytokines and costimulatory molecules. Collectively, TGF-beta inhibits the development of immunopathology to self or nonharmful antigens without compromising immune responses to pathogens. This review highlights the findings that have advanced our understanding of TGF-beta in the immune system and in disease.
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            Targeted disruption of the mouse transforming growth factor-beta 1 gene results in multifocal inflammatory disease.

            Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is a multifunctional growth factor that has profound regulatory effects on many developmental and physiological processes. Disruption of the TGF-beta 1 gene by homologous recombination in murine embryonic stem cells enables mice to be generated that carry the disrupted allele. Animals homozygous for the mutated TGF-beta 1 allele show no gross developmental abnormalities, but about 20 days after birth they succumb to a wasting syndrome accompanied by a multifocal, mixed inflammatory cell response and tissue necrosis, leading to organ failure and death. TGF-beta 1-deficient mice may be valuable models for human immune and inflammatory disorders, including autoimmune diseases, transplant rejection and graft versus host reactions.
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              Human IL-25- and IL-33-responsive type 2 innate lymphoid cells are defined by expression of CRTH2 and CD161.

              Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are emerging as a family of effectors and regulators of innate immunity and tissue remodeling. Interleukin 22 (IL-22)- and IL-17-producing ILCs, which depend on the transcription factor RORγt, express CD127 (IL-7 receptor α-chain) and the natural killer cell marker CD161. Here we describe another lineage-negative CD127(+)CD161(+) ILC population found in humans that expressed the chemoattractant receptor CRTH2. These cells responded in vitro to IL-2 plus IL-25 and IL-33 by producing IL-13. CRTH2(+) ILCs were present in fetal and adult lung and gut. In fetal gut, these cells expressed IL-13 but not IL-17 or IL-22. There was enrichment for CRTH2(+) ILCs in nasal polyps of chronic rhinosinusitis, a typical type 2 inflammatory disease. Our data identify a unique type of human ILC that provides an innate source of T helper type 2 (T(H)2) cytokines.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences
                Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1420-682X
                1420-9071
                June 2019
                March 2 2019
                June 2019
                : 76
                : 11
                : 2111-2132
                Article
                10.1007/s00018-019-03056-x
                © 2019

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