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      Effect of Hemodiafiltration against Radical Stress in the Course of Blood Purification

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          The involvement of radical stress has been suggested as a cause for complications in patients on dialysis, such as arteriosclerosis, dialysis-related amyloidosis, etc. It has been reported that the increase in radical stress is not only seen in renal failure, but that its amplified effect is also seen in the process of blood purification. Our group has reported on the radical stress-reducing effect of HDF. We performed four types of blood purification (HD; on-line HDF; pre, on-line HDF; post, P/P HDF) in patients on maintenance dialysis using the polysulfone (APS) dialyzer. The change in radical related markers such as pentosidine (total, free) and CML (total, free), and the CTL/Cr ratio, and the hydroperoxide radicals were studied. In HDF (post, pre), the amplification rate of hydroperoxide radicals was significantly low, whereas the reduction rate of CTL/Cr ratio as index for hydroxy radicals was significantly higher in on-line HDF than in HD. Both the total CML and T-pentosidine increased in HD but showed a decrease in HDF. As HDF uses large amounts of replacement solution, the following effects can be expected: (a) suppression of the amplification of hydroperoxide radicals and suppression of the amplification of hydroxy radicals, and (b) suppression of fat oxidation by AGEs themselves. These antiradical stress effects are presumed to be exerted by effective removal of radical carrier protein, denatured protein, and complement protein in HDF, by dilution of radicals by massive use of replacement solution, and by the sequential reduction of the excitation and amplification effects.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Lipid advanced glycosylation: pathway for lipid oxidation in vivo.

          To address potential mechanisms for oxidative modification of lipids in vivo, we investigated the possibility that phospholipids react directly with glucose to form advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) that then initiate lipid oxidation. Phospholipid-linked AGEs formed readily in vitro, mimicking the absorbance, fluorescence, and immunochemical properties of AGEs that result from advanced glycosylation of proteins. Oxidation of unsaturated fatty acid residues, as assessed by reactive aldehyde formation, occurred at a rate that paralleled the rate of lipid advanced glycosylation. Aminoguanidine, an agent that prevents protein advanced glycosylation, inhibited both lipid advanced glycosylation and oxidative modification. Incubation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) with glucose produced AGE moieties that were attached to both the lipid and the apoprotein components. Oxidized LDL formed concomitantly with AGE-modified LDL. Of significance, AGE ELISA analysis of LDL specimens isolated from diabetic individuals revealed increased levels of both apoprotein- and lipid-linked AGEs when compared to specimens obtained from normal, nondiabetic controls. Circulating levels of oxidized LDL were elevated in diabetic patients and correlated significantly with lipid AGE levels. These data support the concept that AGE oxidation plays an important and perhaps primary role in initiating lipid oxidation in vivo.
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            Renal filtration and catabolism of complement protein D.

            Complement protein D, a serine protease participating in the formation of the C3 convertase of the alternative complement pathway, has the lowest molecular weight (23,750) and serum concentration of all complement proteins. In normal serum, D is the rate-limiting protease of the alternative pathway of complement activation. We report that the serum concentrations of D in 20 patients with chronic renal failure (mean +/- S.D., 0.42 +/- 0.28 mg per deciliter) and in 16 patients on long-term dialysis (1.53 +/- 0.39 mg per deciliter) were significantly higher (P less than 0.001) than in 22 healthy adults (0.18 +/- 0.04 mg per deciliter). In chronic renal failure the serum concentration of D correlated with that of creatinine (r = 0.75, P less than 0.001). The serum concentrations of D found in patients with renal failure reached and in some cases exceeded those at which the protease is no longer rate-limiting. Thus, enhanced activity of the alternative pathway of complement should be expected in patients with advanced renal failure. Urinary D was undetectable (less than 0.2 micrograms per deciliter) in 17 normal adults and either undetectable or below the concentration expected from the degree of proteinuria in 10 patients with nephrotic syndrome. However, in a patient with Fanconi's syndrome the urinary concentration of D (1.3 mg per deciliter) was an order of magnitude higher than the serum concentration, representing 0.5 per cent of the total protein. The urinary D in this patient had normal hemolytic activity, antigenicity, and size. These results indicate that D is filtered through the glomerular membrane and is probably catabolized in the proximal renal tubules.
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              Plasma Pentosidine Levels Measured by a Newly Developed Method Using ELISA in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure

              The plasma pentosidine levels in patients with renal disease were measured by a simple method which was established for plasma and urinary pentosidine determinations. The method, which can be completed within a few hours, involves pretreating plasma with proteolytic enzyme (pronase) and measuring the concentration of pentosidine in the sample by ELISA using antipentosidine antibodies. The prepared antibodies showed no cross-reaction with the raw materials for pentosidine synthesis or with compounds having similar structures. SDS-PAGE indicated that the antibodies had a high purity. The reaction of the antibodies and keyhole limpet hemocyanin-pentosidine in the competitive ELISA system was inhibited by free pentosidine. Excellent standard curves for pentosidine determination were obtained. In actual measurements of clinical samples from patients, a good correlation (r = 0.9356) was obtained between the values measured by ELISA and HPLC. The plasma pentosidine level in patients with renal disease correlated significantly with plasma creatinine, urea nitrogen, β 2 -microglobulin, and creatinine clearance, indicating its usefulness in evaluating the severity of renal disease. A significant elevation in plasma pentosidine levels was observed in mild renal dysfunction, whereas no significant increases in creatinine and urea nitrogen levels were detected, suggesting that the plasma pentosidine level is useful in the early diagnosis of beginning renal failure. In patients with chronic renal failure, no difference in plasma pentosidine levels was observed between diabetic nephropathy and chronic glomerulonephritis, while a significant correlation was observed with phosphatidylcholine hydroperoxide, suggesting the possibility that the plasma pentosidine level reflects injury due to oxidation. From these results, the quantitative measurement method developed by us is judged to be a superior innovation for measuring pentosidine in body fluids. The plasma pentosidine level may be useful for the early diagnosis of mild renal failure and to estimate the degree of the severity of renal diseases.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                January 2005
                27 January 2005
                : 22
                : Suppl 2
                : 72-77
                Second Department of Internal Medicine, Oita University, Faculty of Medicine, Hazama, Japan
                81879 Blood Purif 2004;22(suppl 2):72–77
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 8, References: 13, Pages: 6
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/81879
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