The involvement of radical stress has been suggested as a cause for complications in patients on dialysis, such as arteriosclerosis, dialysis-related amyloidosis, etc. It has been reported that the increase in radical stress is not only seen in renal failure, but that its amplified effect is also seen in the process of blood purification. Our group has reported on the radical stress-reducing effect of HDF. We performed four types of blood purification (HD; on-line HDF; pre, on-line HDF; post, P/P HDF) in patients on maintenance dialysis using the polysulfone (APS) dialyzer. The change in radical related markers such as pentosidine (total, free) and CML (total, free), and the CTL/Cr ratio, and the hydroperoxide radicals were studied. In HDF (post, pre), the amplification rate of hydroperoxide radicals was significantly low, whereas the reduction rate of CTL/Cr ratio as index for hydroxy radicals was significantly higher in on-line HDF than in HD. Both the total CML and T-pentosidine increased in HD but showed a decrease in HDF. As HDF uses large amounts of replacement solution, the following effects can be expected: (a) suppression of the amplification of hydroperoxide radicals and suppression of the amplification of hydroxy radicals, and (b) suppression of fat oxidation by AGEs themselves. These antiradical stress effects are presumed to be exerted by effective removal of radical carrier protein, denatured protein, and complement protein in HDF, by dilution of radicals by massive use of replacement solution, and by the sequential reduction of the excitation and amplification effects.