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      Mechanism and Regulation of Centriole and Cilium Biogenesis

      1 , 2

      Annual Review of Biochemistry

      Annual Reviews

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          Abstract

          The centriole is an ancient microtubule-based organelle with a conserved nine-fold symmetry. Centrioles form the core of centrosomes, which organize the interphase microtubule cytoskeleton of most animal cells and form the poles of the mitotic spindle. Centrioles can also be modified to form basal bodies, which template the formation of cilia and play central roles in cellular signaling, fluid movement, and locomotion. In this review, we discuss developments in our understanding of the biogenesis of centrioles and cilia and the regulatory controls that govern their structure and number. We also discuss how defects in these processes contribute to a spectrum of human diseases and how new technologies have expanded our understanding of centriole and cilium biology, revealing exciting avenues for future exploration.

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          Most cited references 230

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          Proteomic characterization of the human centrosome by protein correlation profiling.

          The centrosome is the major microtubule-organizing centre of animal cells and through its influence on the cytoskeleton is involved in cell shape, polarity and motility. It also has a crucial function in cell division because it determines the poles of the mitotic spindle that segregates duplicated chromosomes between dividing cells. Despite the importance of this organelle to cell biology and more than 100 years of study, many aspects of its function remain enigmatic and its structure and composition are still largely unknown. We performed a mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis of human centrosomes in the interphase of the cell cycle by quantitatively profiling hundreds of proteins across several centrifugation fractions. True centrosomal proteins were revealed by both correlation with already known centrosomal proteins and in vivo localization. We identified and validated 23 novel components and identified 41 likely candidates as well as the vast majority of the known centrosomal proteins in a large background of nonspecific proteins. Protein correlation profiling permits the analysis of any multiprotein complex that can be enriched by fractionation but not purified to homogeneity.
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            Flies without centrioles.

            Centrioles and centrosomes have an important role in animal cell organization, but it is uncertain to what extent they are essential for animal development. The Drosophila protein DSas-4 is related to the human microcephaly protein CenpJ and the C. elegans centriolar protein Sas-4. We show that DSas-4 is essential for centriole replication in flies. DSas-4 mutants start to lose centrioles during embryonic development, and, by third-instar larval stages, no centrioles or centrosomes are detectable. Mitotic spindle assembly is slow in mutant cells, and approximately 30% of the asymmetric divisions of larval neuroblasts are abnormal. Nevertheless, mutant flies develop with near normal timing into morphologically normal adults. These flies, however, have no cilia or flagella and die shortly after birth because their sensory neurons lack cilia. Thus, centrioles are essential for the formation of centrosomes, cilia, and flagella, but, remarkably, they are not essential for most aspects of Drosophila development.
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              Plk4-induced centriole biogenesis in human cells.

              We show that overexpression of Polo-like kinase 4 (Plk4) in human cells induces centrosome amplification through the simultaneous generation of multiple procentrioles adjoining each parental centriole. This provided an opportunity for dissecting centriole assembly and characterizing assembly intermediates. Critical components were identified and ordered into an assembly pathway through siRNA and localized through immunoelectron microscopy. Plk4, hSas-6, CPAP, Cep135, gamma-tubulin, and CP110 were required at different stages of procentriole formation and in association with different centriolar structures. Remarkably, hSas-6 associated only transiently with nascent procentrioles, whereas Cep135 and CPAP formed a core structure within the proximal lumen of both parental and nascent centrioles. Finally, CP110 was recruited early and then associated with the growing distal tips, indicating that centrioles elongate through insertion of alpha-/beta-tubulin underneath a CP110 cap. Collectively, these data afford a comprehensive view of the assembly pathway underlying centriole biogenesis in human cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Annual Review of Biochemistry
                Annu. Rev. Biochem.
                Annual Reviews
                0066-4154
                1545-4509
                June 20 2019
                June 20 2019
                : 88
                : 1
                : 691-724
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Molecular, Cellular and Developmental Biology, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511, USA;
                [2 ]Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA;
                Article
                10.1146/annurev-biochem-013118-111153
                © 2019

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