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      Alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED): A critical review and meta‐analysis

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          The purpose of this systematic review and meta‐analysis was to critically review the (1) prevalence of alcohol mixed with energy drink (AMED) consumption, (2) motives for AMED consumption, (3) correlates of AMED consumption, and (4) whether AMED consumption has an impact on (a) alcohol consumption, (b) subjective intoxication, and (c) risk‐taking behavior.

          Overall a minority of the population consumes AMED, typically infrequently. Motives for AMED consumption are predominantly hedonistic and social. Meta‐analyses revealed that AMED consumers drink significantly more alcohol than alcohol‐only (AO) consumers. Within‐subject comparisons restricted to AMED consumers revealed that alcohol consumption does not significantly differ between typical AMED and AO occasions. On past month heaviest drinking occasions, AMED users consume significantly less alcohol on AMED occasions when compared to AO occasions. AMED consumers experience significantly fewer negative consequences and risk‐taking behavior on AMED occasions compared with AO occasions. Meta‐analyses of subjective intoxication studies suggest that AMED consumption does not differentially affect subjective intoxication when compared to AO consumption. In conclusion, when compared to AO consumption, mixing alcohol with energy drink does not affect subjective intoxication and seems unlikely to increase total alcohol consumption, associated risk‐taking behavior, nor other negative alcohol‐related consequences. Further research may be necessary to fully reveal the effects of AMED.

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          Most cited references 107

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          Caffeinated cocktails: energy drink consumption, high-risk drinking, and alcohol-related consequences among college students.

          The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is popular on college campuses in the United States. Limited research suggests that energy drink consumption lessens subjective intoxication in persons who also have consumed alcohol. This study examines the relationship between energy drink use, high-risk drinking behavior, and alcohol-related consequences. In Fall 2006, a Web-based survey was conducted in a stratified random sample of 4,271 college students from 10 universities in North Carolina. A total of 697 students (24% of past 30-day drinkers) reported consuming AmED in the past 30 days. Students who were male, white, intramural athletes, fraternity or sorority members or pledges, and younger were significantly more likely to consume AmED. In multivariable analyses, consumption of AmED was associated with increased heavy episodic drinking (6.4 days vs. 3.4 days on average; p < 0.001) and twice as many episodes of weekly drunkenness (1.4 days/week vs. 0.73 days/week; p < 0.001). Students who reported consuming AmED had significantly higher prevalence of alcohol-related consequences, including being taken advantage of sexually, taking advantage of another sexually, riding with an intoxicated driver, being physically hurt or injured, and requiring medical treatment (p < 0.05). The effect of consuming AmED on driving while intoxicated depended on a student's reported typical alcohol consumption (interaction p = 0.027). Almost one-quarter of college student current drinkers reported mixing alcohol with energy drinks. These students are at increased risk for alcohol-related consequences, even after adjusting for the amount of alcohol consumed. Further research is necessary to understand this association and to develop targeted interventions to reduce risk.
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            Cognitive and physiological effects of an "energy drink": an evaluation of the whole drink and of glucose, caffeine and herbal flavouring fractions.

            Both glucose and caffeine can improve aspects of cognitive performance and, in the case of caffeine, mood. There are few studies investigating the effects of the two substances in combination. We assessed the mood, cognitive and physiological effects of a soft drink containing caffeine and glucose as well as flavouring levels of herbal extracts. The effects of different drink fractions were also evaluated. Using a randomised, double-blind, balanced, five-way crossover design, 20 participants who were overnight fasted and caffeine-deprived received 250 ml drinks containing 37.5 g glucose; 75 mg caffeine; ginseng and ginkgo biloba at flavouring levels; a whole drink (containing all these substances) or a placebo (vehicle). Participants were assessed in each drink condition, separated by a 7-day wash-out period. Cognitive, psychomotor and mood assessment took place immediately prior to the drink then 30 min thereafter. The primary outcome measures included five aspects of cognitive performance from the Cognitive Drug Research assessment battery. Mood, heart rate and blood glucose levels were also monitored. Compared with placebo, the whole drink resulted in significantly improved performance on "secondary memory" and "speed of attention" factors. There were no other cognitive or mood effects. This pattern of results would not be predicted from the effects of glucose and caffeine in isolation, either as seen here or from the literature addressing the effects of the substances in isolation. These data suggest that there is some degree of synergy between the cognition-modulating effects of glucose and caffeine which merits further investigation.
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              Scientific Opinion on the safety of caffeine


                Author and article information

                Hum Psychopharmacol
                Hum Psychopharmacol
                Human Psychopharmacology
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                08 February 2018
                March 2018
                : 33
                : 2 ( doiID: 10.1002/hup.v33.2 )
                [ 1 ] Division of Pharmacology Utrecht University Utrecht The Netherlands
                [ 2 ] Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences Utrecht University Utrecht The Netherlands
                [ 3 ] Centre for Human Psychopharmacology Swinburne University Melbourne Australia
                [ 4 ] Psychological Sciences Research Group University of the West of England Bristol UK
                [ 5 ] Centre for Research in Biosciences University of the West of England Bristol UK
                [ 6 ] Department of Food Sciences, Food Risk Analysis and Regulatory Excellence Platform (FRAREP) Institute of Nutrition and Functional Foods (INAF), Université Laval Quebec City QC Canada
                [ 7 ] Institute for Global Food Security Queen's University Belfast UK
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                J. C. Verster, Division of Pharmacology, Utrecht University, Universiteitsweg 99, 3584 CG, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

                Email: j.c.verster@

                HUP2650 HUP-17-0058.R1
                © 2018 The Authors Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited and is not used for commercial purposes.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, Pages: 19, Words: 10910
                Funded by: Red Bull GmbH
                Review Article
                Review Articles
                Custom metadata
                March 2018
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:version=5.3.4 mode:remove_FC converted:16.04.2018


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