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      “Inflammatory” Cytokines : Neuromodulators in Normal Brain?

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      Journal of Neurochemistry

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Production of Mice Deficient in Genes for Interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-1α/β, and IL-1 Receptor Antagonist Shows that IL-1β Is Crucial in Turpentine-induced Fever Development and Glucocorticoid Secretion

          Interleukin (IL)-1 is a major mediator of inflammation and exerts pleiotropic effects on the neuro-immuno-endocrine system. To elucidate pathophysiological roles of IL-1, we have first produced IL-1α/β doubly deficient (KO) mice together with mice deficient in either the IL-1α, IL-1β, or IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) genes. These mice were born healthy, and their growth was normal except for IL-1ra KO mice, which showed growth retardation after weaning. Fever development upon injection with turpentine was suppressed in IL-1β as well as IL-1α/β KO mice, but not in IL-1α KO mice, whereas IL-1ra KO mice showed an elevated response. At this time, expression of IL-1β mRNA in the diencephalon decreased 1.5-fold in IL-1α KO mice, whereas expression of IL-1α mRNA decreased >30-fold in IL-1β KO mice, suggesting mutual induction between IL-1α and IL-1β. This mutual induction was also suggested in peritoneal macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide in vitro. In IL-1β KO mice treated with turpentine, the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (EC 1.14.99.1) in the diencephalon was suppressed, whereas it was enhanced in IL-1ra KO mice. We also found that glucocorticoid induction 8 h after turpentine treatment was suppressed in IL-1β but not IL-1α KO mice. These observations suggest that IL-1β but not IL-1α is crucial in febrile and neuro-immuno-endocrine responses, and that this is because IL-1α expression in the brain is dependent on IL-1β. The importance of IL-1ra both in normal physiology and under stress is also suggested.
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            Altered neuronal and microglial responses to excitotoxic and ischemic brain injury in mice lacking TNF receptors.

            Brain injury, as occurs in stroke or head trauma, induces a dramatic increase in levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF), but its role in brain injury response is unknown. We generated mice genetically deficient in TNF receptors (TNFR-KO) to determine the role of TNF in brain cell injury responses. Damage to neurons caused by focal cerebral ischemia and epileptic seizures was exacerbated in TNFR-KO mice, indicating that TNF serves a neuroprotective function. Oxidative stress was increased and levels of an antioxidant enzyme reduced in brain cells of TNFR-KO mice, indicating that TNF protects neurons by stimulating antioxidant pathways. Injury-induced microglial activation was suppressed in TNFR-KO mice, demonstrating a key role for TNF in injury-induced immune response. Drugs that target TNF signaling pathways may prove beneficial in treating stroke and traumatic brain injury.
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              Immunocytochemical analysis of tumor necrosis factor and its receptors in Parkinson's disease.

              Activated glial cells observed in the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease may participate in the mechanism of nerve cell death by providing toxic substances such as cytokines. Among these compounds, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF) is of interest because it can provoke cell death. We detected TNF-immunoreactive glial cells in the substantia nigra of parkinsonian patients but not in those of control subjects. Immunoreactivity for TNF receptors was found in cell bodies and processes of most dopaminergic neurons of control and parkinsonian subjects, suggesting that nigral dopaminergic neurons might be sensitive to TNF produced in Parkinson's disease. These results suggest that TNF may participate in the degenerative processes occurring in Parkinson's disease, at least after a primary insult inducing a reactive gliosis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Neurochemistry
                Wiley-Blackwell
                00223042
                February 01 2000
                December 25 2001
                : 74
                : 2
                : 457-471
                Article
                10.1046/j.1471-4159.2000.740457.x
                © 2001

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