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      Development of a Local Perivascular Paclitaxel Delivery System for Hemodialysis Vascular Access Dysfunction: Polymer Preparation and in vitroActivity

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          Hemodialysis vascular access dysfunction (HVAD) is currently a huge clinical problem. The major cause of HVAD is venous stenosis (as a result of venous neointimal hyperplasia) which leads to thrombosis in polytetrafluoroethylene dialysis access grafts and fistulae. Despite the magnitude of the clinical problem there are currently no effective therapeutic interventions for this condition. In an attempt to reduce the morbidity associated with HVAD, we have developed and validated a local perivascular paclitaxel release system for use in a pig model of arteriovenous graft stenosis. Ethylene vinyl acetate polymers with 5% paclitaxel were formulated. The release profile of paclitaxel was then manipulated to maximize its biological impact in the in vivo situation. In vitro experiments were performed to confirm that the paclitaxel released from the polymer was biologically active against cell types that were similar to those present in the in vivo lesion of neointimal hyperplasia. Our results demonstrate that the paclitaxel polymer wraps which we have developed are mechanically stable with a burst release phase followed by a slower continuous release phase. The paclitaxel released from these polymeric wraps retains its physicochemical and biological properties and is able to inhibit the proliferation of smooth muscle cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts in vitro. We believe that these paclitaxel-loaded polymeric wraps could be ideally suited for perivascular drug delivery in the context of dialysis access grafts and fistulae.

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          Most cited references 11

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          A polymer-based, paclitaxel-eluting stent in patients with coronary artery disease.

          Restenosis after coronary stenting necessitates repeated percutaneous or surgical revascularization procedures. The delivery of paclitaxel to the site of vascular injury may reduce the incidence of neointimal hyperplasia and restenosis. At 73 U.S. centers, we enrolled 1314 patients who were receiving a stent in a single, previously untreated coronary-artery stenosis (vessel diameter, 2.5 to 3.75 mm; lesion length, 10 to 28 mm) in a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. A total of 652 patients were randomly assigned to receive a bare-metal stent, and 662 to receive an identical-appearing, slow-release, polymer-based, paclitaxel-eluting stent. Angiographic follow-up was prespecified at nine months in 732 patients. In terms of base-line characteristics, the two groups were well matched. Diabetes mellitus was present in 24.2 percent of patients; the mean reference-vessel diameter was 2.75 mm, and the mean lesion length was 13.4 mm. A mean of 1.08 stents (length, 21.8 mm) were implanted per patient. The rate of ischemia-driven target-vessel revascularization at nine months was reduced from 12.0 percent with the implantation of a bare-metal stent to 4.7 percent with the implantation of a paclitaxel-eluting stent (relative risk, 0.39; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.26 to 0.59; P<0.001). Target-lesion revascularization was required in 3.0 percent of the group that received a paclitaxel-eluting stent, as compared with 11.3 percent of the group that received a bare-metal stent (relative risk, 0.27; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.16 to 0.43; P<0.001). The rate of angiographic restenosis was reduced from 26.6 percent to 7.9 percent with the paclitaxel-eluting stent (relative risk, 0.30; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.19 to 0.46; P<0.001). The nine-month composite rates of death from cardiac causes or myocardial infarction (4.7 percent and 4.3 percent, respectively) and stent thrombosis (0.6 percent and 0.8 percent, respectively) were similar in the group that received a paclitaxel-eluting stent and the group that received a bare-metal stent. As compared with bare-metal stents, the slow-release, polymer-based, paclitaxel-eluting stent is safe and markedly reduces the rates of clinical and angiographic restenosis at nine months. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Perivascular delivery of a nitric oxide donor inhibits neointimal hyperplasia in vein grafts implanted in the arterial circulation.

            Nitric oxide has been reported to reduce intimal hyperplasia as a response to arterial injury. This study was designed to assess the possible effect of perivascular application of a nitric oxide donor on neointimal proliferation occurring in veins exposed to the dynamics of the arterial circulation in a hypercholesterolemic rabbit model.
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              Hemodialysis Vascular Access Dysfunction: From Pathophysiology to Novel Therapies


                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                April 2006
                27 April 2006
                : 24
                : 3
                : 289-298
                Departments of Medicine, Surgery, Pathology and the College of Pharmacy, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA
                91346 Blood Purif 2006;24:289–298
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

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                Figures: 5, Tables: 4, References: 20, Pages: 10
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