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      Enhanced recovery after surgery in liver resection: current concepts and controversies

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          Abstract

          Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) attenuates the stress response to surgery in the perioperative period and hastens recovery. Liver resection is a complex surgical procedure where the enhanced recovery program has been shown to be safe and effective in terms of postoperative outcomes. ERAS programs have been shown to be associated with lower morbidity, shortened postoperative stay, and reduced cost with no difference in mortality and readmission rates. However, there are challenges that are unique to hepatic resection such as safety after epidural catheterization and postoperative coagulopathy, intraoperative fluids and postoperative organ dysfunction, need for low central venous pressure to reduce blood loss, and non-lactate containing intravenous fluids. This narrative review briefly discusses these concerns and controversies and suggests revisiting some of the strong recommendations made by the ERAS society in light of the recent evidence.

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          Most cited references 62

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          Does central venous pressure predict fluid responsiveness? A systematic review of the literature and the tale of seven mares.

          Central venous pressure (CVP) is used almost universally to guide fluid therapy in hospitalized patients. Both historical and recent data suggest that this approach may be flawed. A systematic review of the literature to determine the following: (1) the relationship between CVP and blood volume, (2) the ability of CVP to predict fluid responsiveness, and (3) the ability of the change in CVP (DeltaCVP) to predict fluid responsiveness. MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials, and citation review of relevant primary and review articles. Reported clinical trials that evaluated either the relationship between CVP and blood volume or reported the associated between CVP/DeltaCVP and the change in stroke volume/cardiac index following a fluid challenge. From 213 articles screened, 24 studies met our inclusion criteria and were included for data extraction. The studies included human adult subjects, healthy control subjects, and ICU and operating room patients. Data were abstracted on study design, study size, study setting, patient population, correlation coefficient between CVP and blood volume, correlation coefficient (or receive operator characteristic [ROC]) between CVP/DeltaCVP and change in stroke index/cardiac index, percentage of patients who responded to a fluid challenge, and baseline CVP of the fluid responders and nonresponders. Metaanalytic techniques were used to pool data. The 24 studies included 803 patients; 5 studies compared CVP with measured circulating blood volume, while 19 studies determined the relationship between CVP/DeltaCVP and change in cardiac performance following a fluid challenge. The pooled correlation coefficient between CVP and measured blood volume was 0.16 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03 to 0.28). Overall, 56+/-16% of the patients included in this review responded to a fluid challenge. The pooled correlation coefficient between baseline CVP and change in stroke index/cardiac index was 0.18 (95% CI, 0.08 to 0.28). The pooled area under the ROC curve was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.51 to 0.61). The pooled correlation between DeltaCVP and change in stroke index/cardiac index was 0.11 (95% CI, 0.015 to 0.21). Baseline CVP was 8.7+/-2.32 mm Hg [mean+/-SD] in the responders as compared to 9.7+/-2.2 mm Hg in nonresponders (not significant). This systematic review demonstrated a very poor relationship between CVP and blood volume as well as the inability of CVP/DeltaCVP to predict the hemodynamic response to a fluid challenge. CVP should not be used to make clinical decisions regarding fluid management.
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            Major complications, mortality, and resource utilization after open abdominal surgery: 0.9% saline compared to Plasma-Lyte.

            To assess the association of 0.9% saline use versus a calcium-free physiologically balanced crystalloid solution with major morbidity and clinical resource use after abdominal surgery. 0.9% saline, which results in a hyperchloremic acidosis after infusion, is frequently used to replace volume losses after major surgery. An observational study using the Premier Perspective Comparative Database was performed to evaluate adult patients undergoing major open abdominal surgery who received either 0.9% saline (30,994 patients) or a balanced crystalloid solution (926 patients) on the day of surgery. The primary outcome was major morbidity and secondary outcomes included minor complications and acidosis-related interventions. Outcomes were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression and propensity scoring models. For the entire cohort, the in-hospital mortality was 5.6% in the saline group and 2.9% in the balanced group (P < 0.001). One or more major complications occurred in 33.7% of the saline group and 23% of the balanced group (P < 0.001). In the 3:1 propensity-matched sample, treatment with balanced fluid was associated with fewer complications (odds ratio 0.79; 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.97). Postoperative infection (P = 0.006), renal failure requiring dialysis (P < 0.001), blood transfusion (P < 0.001), electrolyte disturbance (P = 0.046), acidosis investigation (P < 0.001), and intervention (P = 0.02) were all more frequent in patients receiving 0.9% saline. Among hospitals in the Premier Perspective Database, the use of a calcium-free balanced crystalloid for replacement of fluid losses on the day of major surgery was associated with less postoperative morbidity than 0.9% saline.
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              Effect of salt and water balance on recovery of gastrointestinal function after elective colonic resection: a randomised controlled trial.

              Low concentrations of albumin in serum and long gastric emptying times have been returned to normal in dogs by salt and water restriction, or a high protein intake. We aimed to determine the effect of salt and water balance on recovery of gastrointestinal function after elective colonic resection in human beings. We randomly allocated ten patients to receive postoperative intravenous fluids in accordance present hospital practice (> or = 3 L water and 154 mmol sodium per day) and ten to receive a restricted intake (< or = 2 L water and 77 mmol sodium per day). All patients had no disease other than colonic cancer. The primary endpoint was solid and liquid-phase gastric emptying time, measured by dual isotope radionuclide scintigraphy on the fourth postoperative day. Secondary endpoints included time to first bowel movement and length of postoperative hospital stay. Analysis was by intention to treat. Median solid and liquid phase gastric emptying times (T(50)) on the fourth postoperative day were significantly longer in the standard group than in the restricted group (175 vs 72.5 min, difference 56 [95% CI 12-132], p=0.028; and 110 vs 73.5 min, 52 [9-95], p=0.017, respectively). Median passage of flatus was 1 day later (4 vs 3 days, 2 [1-2], p=0.001); median passage of stool 2.5 days later (6.5 vs 4 days, 3 [2-4], p=0.001); and median postoperative hospital stay 3 days longer (9 vs 6 days, 3 [1-8], p=0.001) in the standard group than in the restricted group. One patient in the restricted group developed hypokalaemia, whereas seven patients in the standard group had side-effects or complications (p=0.01). Positive salt and water balance sufficient to cause a 3 kg weight gain after surgery delays return of gastrointestinal function and prolongs hospital stay in patients undergoing elective colonic resection.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Korean J Anesthesiol
                Korean J Anesthesiol
                KJA
                Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
                Korean Society of Anesthesiologists
                2005-6419
                2005-7563
                April 2019
                6 March 2019
                : 72
                : 2
                : 119-129
                Affiliations
                Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain, Tata Memorial Hospital, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Jigeeshu V. Divatia, M.D. Department of Anesthesia, Critical Care and Pain, Tata Memorial Hospital, Homi Bhabha National Institute, Dr Ernest Borges Marg, Parel, Mumbai 400012, India Tel: 91-22-24177000, Extension 7041/4042, Fax: 91-22-24146937 Email: jdivatia@ 123456yahoo.com

                It was presented at the 95th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Korean Society of Anesthesiologists, November 2018, Seoul Dragon-City Hotelplex, Seoul, Korea.

                Article
                kja-d-19-00010
                10.4097/kja.d.19.00010
                6458514
                30841029
                Copyright © The Korean Society of Anesthesiologists, 2019

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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