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      Silver Nanoparticles-Composing Alginate/Gelatine Hydrogel Improves Wound Healing In Vivo


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          Polymer hydrogels have been suggested as dressing materials for the treatment of cutaneous wounds and tissue revitalization. In this work, we report the development of a hydrogel composed of natural polymers (sodium alginate and gelatin) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) with recognized antimicrobial activity for healing cutaneous lesions. For the development of the hydrogel, different ratios of sodium alginate and gelatin have been tested, while different concentrations of AgNO 3 precursor (1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mM) were assayed for the production of AgNPs. The obtained AgNPs exhibited a characteristic peak between 430–450 nm in the ultraviolet-visible (UV–Vis) spectrum suggesting a spheroidal form, which was confirmed by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Fourier Transform Infra-red (FT–IR) analysis suggested the formation of strong intermolecular interactions as hydrogen bonds and electrostatic attractions between polymers, showing bands at 2920, 2852, 1500, and 1640 cm −1. Significant bactericidal activity was observed for the hydrogel, with a Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of 0.50 µg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 53.0 µg/mL against Staphylococcus aureus. AgNPs were shown to be non-cytotoxic against fibroblast cells. The in vivo studies in female Wister rats confirmed the capacity of the AgNP-loaded hydrogels to reduce the wound size compared to uncoated injuries promoting histological changes in the healing tissue over the time course of wound healing, as in earlier development and maturation of granulation tissue. The developed hydrogel with AgNPs has healing potential for clinical applications.

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          Most cited references54

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          Hydrogels in pharmaceutical formulations.

          N. Peppas (2000)
          The availability of large molecular weight protein- and peptide-based drugs due to the recent advances in the field of molecular biology has given us new ways to treat a number of diseases. Synthetic hydrogels offer a possibly effective and convenient way to administer these compounds. Hydrogels are hydrophilic, three-dimensional networks, which are able to imbibe large amounts of water or biological fluids, and thus resemble, to a large extent, a biological tissue. They are insoluble due to the presence of chemical (tie-points, junctions) and/or physical crosslinks such as entanglements and crystallites. These materials can be synthesized to respond to a number of physiological stimuli present in the body, such as pH, ionic strength and temperature. The aim of this article is to present a concise review on the applications of hydrogels in the pharmaceutical field, hydrogel characterization and analysis of drug release from such devices.
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            Formation of the scab and the rate of epithelization of superficial wounds in the skin of the young domestic pig.

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              Is Open Access

              Metal-Based Nanoparticles as Antimicrobial Agents: An Overview

              Metal-based nanoparticles have been extensively investigated for a set of biomedical applications. According to the World Health Organization, in addition to their reduced size and selectivity for bacteria, metal-based nanoparticles have also proved to be effective against pathogens listed as a priority. Metal-based nanoparticles are known to have non-specific bacterial toxicity mechanisms (they do not bind to a specific receptor in the bacterial cell) which not only makes the development of resistance by bacteria difficult, but also broadens the spectrum of antibacterial activity. As a result, a large majority of metal-based nanoparticles efficacy studies performed so far have shown promising results in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The aim of this review has been a comprehensive discussion of the state of the art on the use of the most relevant types of metal nanoparticles employed as antimicrobial agents. A special emphasis to silver nanoparticles is given, while others (e.g., gold, zinc oxide, copper, and copper oxide nanoparticles) commonly used in antibiotherapy are also reviewed. The novelty of this review relies on the comparative discussion of the different types of metal nanoparticles, their production methods, physicochemical characterization, and pharmacokinetics together with the toxicological risk encountered with the use of different types of nanoparticles as antimicrobial agents. Their added-value in the development of alternative, more effective antibiotics against multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria has been highlighted.

                Author and article information

                Nanomaterials (Basel)
                Nanomaterials (Basel)
                23 February 2020
                February 2020
                : 10
                : 2
                [1 ]Tiradentes University (UNIT) and Institute of Technology and Research (ITP), Av. Murilo Dantas 300, Aracaju 49032-490, Brazil; flavinhadiniz_se@ 123456hotmail.com (F.R.D.); romeritocesar@ 123456hotmail.com (R.C.A.P.M.); rannier.andrade@ 123456outlook.com (L.R.A.); luciana.nalone@ 123456hotmail.com (L.N.A.); ricardo_albuquerque@ 123456unit.br (R.L.C.d.A.J.); lupeco7@ 123456hotmail.com (L.P.d.C.)
                [2 ]Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Coimbra, Pólo das Ciências da Saúde, Azinhaga de Santa Comba, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
                [3 ]Department of Technological and Environmental Processes, Sorocaba University (UNISO), Rod. Raposo Tavares, Km 92.5, Sorocaba 18023-000, Brazil; marco.chaud@ 123456prof.uniso.br
                [4 ]Department of Exact Sciences and Earth, Federal University of São Paulo (UNIFESP), Rua Prof. Artur Riedel, 275, Diadema CEP 09972-270, Brazil; classiusferreira@ 123456yahoo.com.br
                [5 ]Department of Morphology, Federal University of Sergipe (UFS), Avenida Marechal Rondon, São Cristovão 49100-000, Brazil; crisbani@ 123456gmail.com
                [6 ]Center for Biomedical Engineering, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 65 Landsdowne Street, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; sshin4@ 123456bwh.harvard.edu (S.R.S.); SHASSAN@ 123456bwh.harvard.edu (S.H.)
                [7 ]Department of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Technology and Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy and Food Sciences and Institute of Nanoscience and nanotechnology (IN2UB), University of Barcelona, Av. Joan XXIII 27-31, 08028 Barcelona, Spain; esanchezlopez@ 123456ub.edu
                [8 ]CIBERNED Centros de Biomedicina en Red de Enfermedades Neurodegenerativas, Facultat de Farmàcia, Universitat de Barcelona, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
                [9 ]CEB - Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar 4710-057 Braga, Portugal
                [10 ]Tiradentes Institute, 150 Mt Vernon St, Dorchester, MA 02125, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: ebsouto@ 123456ff.uc.pt (E.B.S.); patricia_severino@ 123456itp.org.br (P.S.); Tel.: +351-239-488-400 (E.B.S.); +55 (79) 3218-2190 (P.S.)
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                : 08 January 2020
                : 19 February 2020

                sodium alginate,gelatin,silver nanoparticles,antimicrobial activity,healing


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