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      Childbirth anxieties in the shadow of COVID‐19: Self‐compassion and social support among Jewish and Arab pregnant women in Israel

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          Abstract

          The study examined two angles of childbirth anxieties of Jewish and Arab pregnant women in Israel during the COVID‐19 pandemic (March‐April, 2020). Specifically, we examined the contribution of personal resources: self‐compassion and perceived social support, as well as a couple of COVID‐19‐related fears of being infected and concern for the foetus, to both the woman's global fear of childbirth (FOC) and her COVID‐19‐related childbirth anxiety. Participants were Jewish and Arab pregnant women ( n = 403) aged 20–47, who completed a set of structured self‐report questionnaires from 18 March to 9 April 2020. Findings indicated that Arab women reported higher level of COVID‐19‐related childbirth anxiety and COVID‐19‐related fears of being infected and concern for the foetus. In addition, poorer health, being an Arab woman, being in the third trimester, lower self‐compassion, and higher COVID‐19‐related fears contributed significantly to greater COVID‐19‐related childbirth anxiety. Furthermore, poorer health, being primiparous, at‐risk pregnancy, lower self‐compassion and higher fear of being infected contributed significantly to greater FOC. Importantly, social support was found to moderate the association between self‐compassion and FOC. The results highlight the need to be attentive to pregnant women in times of crisis, and in particular to especially vulnerable subgroups, such as cultural minorities. They also highlight the importance of personal resources that may be applied in targeted interventions to reduce distress in vulnerable populations.

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          Most cited references61

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          Is Open Access

          Immediate Psychological Responses and Associated Factors during the Initial Stage of the 2019 Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Epidemic among the General Population in China

          Background: The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic is a public health emergency of international concern and poses a challenge to psychological resilience. Research data are needed to develop evidence-driven strategies to reduce adverse psychological impacts and psychiatric symptoms during the epidemic. The aim of this study was to survey the general public in China to better understand their levels of psychological impact, anxiety, depression, and stress during the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak. The data will be used for future reference. Methods: From 31 January to 2 February 2020, we conducted an online survey using snowball sampling techniques. The online survey collected information on demographic data, physical symptoms in the past 14 days, contact history with COVID-19, knowledge and concerns about COVID-19, precautionary measures against COVID-19, and additional information required with respect to COVID-19. Psychological impact was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and mental health status was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21). Results: This study included 1210 respondents from 194 cities in China. In total, 53.8% of respondents rated the psychological impact of the outbreak as moderate or severe; 16.5% reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms; 28.8% reported moderate to severe anxiety symptoms; and 8.1% reported moderate to severe stress levels. Most respondents spent 20–24 h per day at home (84.7%); were worried about their family members contracting COVID-19 (75.2%); and were satisfied with the amount of health information available (75.1%). Female gender, student status, specific physical symptoms (e.g., myalgia, dizziness, coryza), and poor self-rated health status were significantly associated with a greater psychological impact of the outbreak and higher levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Specific up-to-date and accurate health information (e.g., treatment, local outbreak situation) and particular precautionary measures (e.g., hand hygiene, wearing a mask) were associated with a lower psychological impact of the outbreak and lower levels of stress, anxiety, and depression (p < 0.05). Conclusions: During the initial phase of the COVID-19 outbreak in China, more than half of the respondents rated the psychological impact as moderate-to-severe, and about one-third reported moderate-to-severe anxiety. Our findings identify factors associated with a lower level of psychological impact and better mental health status that can be used to formulate psychological interventions to improve the mental health of vulnerable groups during the COVID-19 epidemic.
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            The Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support

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              Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 outbreak in China: a web-based cross-sectional survey

              Highlights • The COVID-19 outbreak significantly affects the mental health of Chinese public • During the outbreak, young people had a higher risk of anxiety than older people • Spending too much time thinking about the outbreak is harmful to mental health • Healthcare workers were at high risk for poor sleep
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                taubman@biu.ac.il
                Journal
                Health Soc Care Community
                Health Soc Care Community
                10.1111/(ISSN)1365-2524
                HSC
                Health & Social Care in the Community
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                0966-0410
                1365-2524
                14 October 2020
                : 10.1111/hsc.13196
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] The Louis and Gabi Weisfeld School of Social Work Bar‐Ilan University Ramat Gan Israel
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence

                Orit Taubman – Ben‐Ari, The Louis and Gabi Weisfeld School of Social Work, Bar‐Ilan University, Ramat Gan 52900, Israel.

                Email: taubman@ 123456biu.ac.il

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9308-4052
                Article
                HSC13196
                10.1111/hsc.13196
                7675716
                33058395
                0f168334-dc9d-4d87-a2ea-27a724b4b70d
                © 2020 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

                This article is being made freely available through PubMed Central as part of the COVID-19 public health emergency response. It can be used for unrestricted research re-use and analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source, for the duration of the public health emergency.

                History
                : 08 July 2020
                : 16 September 2020
                : 21 September 2020
                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 3, Pages: 11, Words: 19080
                Categories
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                corrected-proof
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:5.9.4 mode:remove_FC converted:19.11.2020

                Health & Social care
                anxiety,childbirth,covid‐19,pregnancy,self‐compassion,social support
                Health & Social care
                anxiety, childbirth, covid‐19, pregnancy, self‐compassion, social support

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