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      STOP Questionnaire : A Tool to Screen Patients for Obstructive Sleep Apnea

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          Abstract

          Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a major risk factor for perioperative adverse events. However, no screening tool for OSA has been validated in surgical patients. This study was conducted to develop and validate a concise and easy-to-use questionnaire for OSA screening in surgical patients. After hospital ethics approval, preoperative patients aged 18 yr or older and without previously diagnosed OSA were recruited. After a factor analysis, reliability check, and pilot study; four yes/no questions were used to develop this screening tool. The four questions were respectively related to snoring, tiredness during daytime, observed apnea, and high blood pressure (STOP). For validation, the score from the STOP questionnaire was evaluated versus the apnea-hypopnea index from monitored polysomnography. The STOP questionnaire was given to 2,467 patients, 27.5% classified as being at high risk of OSA. Two hundred eleven patients underwent polysomnography, 34 for the pilot test and 177 for validation. In the validation group, the apnea-hypopnea index was 20 +/- 6. The sensitivities of the STOP questionnaire with apnea-hypopnea index greater than 5, greater than 15, and greater than 30 as cutoffs were 65.6, 74.3, and 79.5%, respectively. When incorporating body mass index, age, neck circumference, and gender into the STOP questionnaire, sensitivities were increased to 83.6, 92.9, and 100% with the same apnea-hypopnea index cutoffs. The STOP questionnaire is a concise and easy-to-use screening tool for OSA. It has been developed and validated in surgical patients at preoperative clinics. Combined with body mass index, age, neck size, and gender, it had a high sensitivity, especially for patients with moderate to severe OSA.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Sleep-disordered breathing and cardiovascular disease: cross-sectional results of the Sleep Heart Health Study.

          Disordered breathing during sleep is associated with acute, unfavorable effects on cardiovascular physiology, but few studies have examined its postulated association with cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examined the cross-sectional association between sleep- disordered breathing and self-reported CVD in 6,424 free-living individuals who underwent overnight, unattended polysomnography at home. Sleep-disordered breathing was quantified by the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)-the average number of apneas and hypopneas per hour of sleep. Mild to moderate disordered breathing during sleep was highly prevalent in the sample (median AHI: 4.4; interquartile range: 1.3 to 11.0). A total of 1,023 participants (16%) reported at least one manifestation of CVD (myocardial infarction, angina, coronary revascularization procedure, heart failure, or stroke). The multivariable-adjusted relative odds (95% CI) of prevalent CVD for the second, third, and fourth quartiles of the AHI (versus the first) were 0.98 (0.77-1.24), 1.28 (1.02-1.61), and 1.42 (1.13-1.78), respectively. Sleep-disordered breathing was associated more strongly with self-reported heart failure and stroke than with self-reported coronary heart disease: the relative odds (95% CI) of heart failure, stroke, and coronary heart disease (upper versus lower AHI quartile) were 2.38 (1.22-4.62), 1.58 (1.02- 2.46), and 1.27 (0.99-1.62), respectively. These findings are compatible with modest to moderate effects of sleep-disordered breathing on heterogeneous manifestations of CVD within a range of AHI values that are considered normal or only mildly elevated.
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            Estimation of the clinically diagnosed proportion of sleep apnea syndrome in middle-aged men and women.

            The proportion of sleep apnea syndrome (SAS) in the general adult population that goes undiagnosed was estimated from a sample of 4,925 employed adults. Questionnaire data on doctor-diagnosed sleep apnea were followed up to ascertain the prevalence of diagnosed sleep apnea. In-laboratory polysomnography on a subset of 1,090 participants was used to estimate screen-detected sleep apnea. In this population, without obvious barriers to health care for sleep disorders, we estimate that 93% of women and 82% of men with moderate to severe SAS have not been clinically diagnosed. These findings provide a baseline for assessing health care resource needs for sleep apnea.
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              Association of atrial fibrillation and obstructive sleep apnea.

              Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) after electrocardioversion. OSA is highly prevalent in patients who are male, obese, and/or hypertensive, but its prevalence in patients with AF is unknown. We prospectively studied consecutive patients undergoing electrocardioversion for AF (n=151) and consecutive patients without past or current AF referred to a general cardiology practice (n=312). OSA was diagnosed with the Berlin questionnaire, which is validated to identify patients with OSA. We also assessed its accuracy compared with polysomnography in a sample of the study population. Groups were compared with the 2-tailed t, Wilcoxon, and chi2 tests. Logistic regression modeled the association of AF and OSA after adjustment for relevant covariates. Patients in each group had similar age, gender, body mass index, and rates of diabetes, hypertension, and congestive heart failure. The questionnaire performed with 0.86 sensitivity, 0.89 specificity, and 0.97 positive predictive value in our sample. The proportion of patients with OSA was significantly higher in the AF group than in the general cardiology group (49% versus 32%, P=0.0004). The adjusted odds ratio for the association between AF and OSA was 2.19 (95% CI 1.40 to 3.42, P=0.0006). The novel finding of this study is that a strong association exists between OSA and AF, such that OSA is strikingly more prevalent in patients with AF than in high-risk patients with multiple other cardiovascular diseases. The coinciding epidemics of obesity and AF underscore the clinical importance of these results.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Anesthesiology
                Anesthesiology
                Ovid Technologies (Wolters Kluwer Health)
                0003-3022
                2008
                May 2008
                : 108
                : 5
                : 812-821
                Article
                10.1097/ALN.0b013e31816d83e4
                18431116
                © 2008

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