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      Binational survey of personal protective equipment (PPE) pollution driven by the COVID-19 pandemic in coastal environments: Abundance, distribution, and analytical characterization

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      a , * , a , a , b , b , c , d , e , f , g , e , a , h , i , j , k , l , l , m , n , o , p , q , q , r , s , t , u , v , w , a
      Journal of Hazardous Materials
      Elsevier B.V.
      Mask, Plastic, Microplastic, Marine, SARS-CoV-2

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          Abstract

          In the present contribution, two nationwide surveys of personal protective equipment (PPE) pollution were conducted in Peru and Argentina aiming to provide valuable information regarding the abundance and distribution of PPE in coastal sites. Additionally, PPE items were recovered from the environment and analyzed by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and X-ray diffraction (XRD), and compared to brand-new PPE in order to investigate the chemical and structural degradation of PPE in the environment. PPE density (PPE m −2) found in both countries were comparable to previous studies. FTIR analysis revealed multiple polymer types comprising common PPE, mainly polypropylene, polyamide, polyethylene terephthalate, and polyester. SEM micrographs showed clear weathering signs, such as cracks, cavities, and rough surfaces in face masks and gloves. EDX elemental mapping revealed the presence of elemental additives, such as Ca in gloves and face masks and AgNPs as an antimicrobial agent. Other metals found on the surface of PPE were Mo, P, Ti, and Zn. XRD patterns displayed a notorious decrease in the crystallinity of polypropylene face masks, which could alter its interaction with external contaminants and stability. The next steps in this line of research were discussed.

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          Predicted growth in plastic waste exceeds efforts to mitigate plastic pollution

          Plastic pollution is a planetary threat, affecting nearly every marine and freshwater ecosystem globally. In response, multilevel mitigation strategies are being adopted but with a lack of quantitative assessment of how such strategies reduce plastic emissions. We assessed the impact of three broad management strategies, plastic waste reduction, waste management, and environmental recovery, at different levels of effort to estimate plastic emissions to 2030 for 173 countries. We estimate that 19 to 23 million metric tons, or 11%, of plastic waste generated globally in 2016 entered aquatic ecosystems. Considering the ambitious commitments currently set by governments, annual emissions may reach up to 53 million metric tons per year by 2030. To reduce emissions to a level well below this prediction, extraordinary efforts to transform the global plastics economy are needed.
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            Marine microplastic debris: An emerging issue for food security, food safety and human health

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              White and wonderful? Microplastics prevail in snow from the Alps to the Arctic

              We detect microplastics in European and Arctic snow, highlighting the importance of atmospheric transport as a pathway.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Hazard Mater
                J Hazard Mater
                Journal of Hazardous Materials
                Elsevier B.V.
                0304-3894
                1873-3336
                11 December 2021
                15 March 2022
                11 December 2021
                : 426
                : 128070
                Affiliations
                [a ]Universidad San Ignacio de Loyola, Av. La Fontana 501, Lima 12, Lima, Peru
                [b ]Instituto Argentino de Oceanografía (IADO), CONICET/UNS, CCT-Bahía Blanca, Camino La Carrindanga, km 7.5, Edificio E1, Bahía Blanca, B8000FWB, Buenos Aires, Argentina
                [c ]Centro Austral de Investigaciones Científicas (CADIC)-CONICET, Ushuaia, Argentina
                [d ]Instituto de Ciencias Polares, Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (ICPA), Universidad Nacional de Tierra del Fuego (UNTDF), Ushuaia, Argentina
                [e ]Centro para la Sostenibilidad Ambiental, Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, Lima 15074, Peru
                [f ]Laboratorio de oceanografía y acidificación costera, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Pedro Ruiz Gallo, Calle Juan XXIII 391, 14013 Lambayeque, Peru
                [g ]Universidad Nacional José Faustino Sánchez Carrión, Pje. Mercedes Indacochea 609, Huacho 15136, Peru
                [h ]Unidad de Investigación de Ecosistemas Marinos—Grupo Aves Marinas, Universidad Científica del Sur, Lima, Peru
                [i ]Administración Técnica Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre Moquegua-Tacna, Servicio Nacional Forestal y de Fauna Silvestre, Tacna, Peru
                [j ]Laboratorio de Ecología Acuática, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Lima, Lima, Peru
                [k ]Universidad Nacional de San Agustín de Arequipa, Santa Catalina Nro. 117, Arequipa, Peru
                [l ]Universidad Nacional Jorge Basadre Grohmann, Avenida Miraflores S/N, Miraflores, 23000 Tacna, Peru
                [m ]ONG Conservaccion, Calle Ugarte y Moscoso 535 Dpto. 302 San Isidro, Lima, Peru
                [n ]Universidad Nacional de Tumbes, Av. Universitaria S/N Pampa Grande, Tumbes, Peru
                [o ]Facultad de Ingeniería Ambiental y de Recursos Naturales, Universidad Nacional del Callao (UNAC), Av. Juan Pablo II 306, Bellavista 07011, Provincia Constitucional del Callao, Peru
                [p ]Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Tecnológica del Peru (UTP), Jirón Hernán Velarde 260, Cercado de Lima, 15046 Lima, Peru
                [q ]Department of Mechanical Engineering, Pontificia Universidad Católica del Peru, Av. Universitaria 1801, 15088 Lima, Peru
                [r ]Instituto de Investigaciones en Fisicoquímica de Córdoba (INFIQC), Departamento de Fisicoquímica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, X5000HUA Córdoba, Argentina
                [s ]Laboratory of Aquatic Systems: Marine and Continental Environments, Faculty of Sciences, Ibn Zohr University, Morocco
                [t ]Systems Environmental Health and Energy Research Center, The Persian Gulf Biomedical Sciences Research Institute, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
                [u ]Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health and Nutrition, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran
                [v ]Instrumental Analytical Chemistry and Centre for Water and Environmental Research (ZWU), Faculty of Chemistry, University of Duisburg-Essen, Universitätsstr. 5, Essen, Germany
                [w ]Faculty of Chemical and Food Engineering, Bahir Dar Institute of Technology-Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author.
                Article
                S0304-3894(21)03039-9 128070
                10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.128070
                8672681
                0f36e6b0-5c38-48ef-aa5a-4d5912ea70a8
                © 2021 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

                History
                : 13 November 2021
                : 7 December 2021
                : 8 December 2021
                Categories
                Article

                mask,plastic,microplastic,marine,sars-cov-2
                mask, plastic, microplastic, marine, sars-cov-2

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