To evaluate frequency and risk factors of retinal redetachment after removal of intraocular silicone oil tamponade. The study included 225 patients who consecutively underwent intraocular silicone oil removal at a mean interval of 10 months after pars plana vitrectomy had been performed by one of two surgeons. Mean follow up time was 17.37 (SD 14.40) months (range 3.02-67.42 months). In 57 of 225 (25.3%) patients, the retina detached after removal of silicone oil. Risk factors for retinal redetachment were the following: number of previously unsuccessful retinal detachment surgeries (p=0.0008); surgeon (p=0.007); visual acuity before silicone oil removal (p=0.009); incomplete removal of vitreous base (p=0.01); absence of an encircling band in eyes with proliferate vitreoretinopathy in which an inferior retinotomy had not been performed (p=0.01); and indication for pars plana vitrectomy. Rate of retinal redetachment was statistically (p>0.05) independent of the technique of silicone oil removal and duration of silicone oil endotamponade. Retinal redetachment after removal of silicone oil endotamponade can occur in approximately a fourth of patients, depending on the criteria to use and to remove silicone oil. Risk factors for recurrent detachment included the following: number of previously unsuccessful retinal detachment surgeries, surgeon, preoperative visual acuity, incomplete removal of the vitreous base, absence of an encircling band, and reason for pars plana vitrectomy. The rate of retinal redetachment is independent of the technique of silicone oil removal and duration of silicone oil endotamponade, with a minimal duration of silicone oil tamponade of about 3 months in the present study.