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A comparison between the effects of propofol–fentanyl with propofol–ketamine for sedation in patients undergoing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography outside the operating room

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      The efficient and secure techniques of anesthesia and sedation have always been needed for. One of these procedures is endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), due to its painfulness and long duration, has high sensitivity. We compare the effects of propofol–fentanyl (PF) with propofol–ketamine (PK) to sedate patients undergoing ERCP.


      In this clinical trial, patients were divided into two groups of 49 people. A group received a pharmaceutical combination of PK, and another group received a pharmaceutical combination of PF. Vital signs of patients, Ramsey Sedation Score, and pain of patients were assessed. The total dosage of used propofol was also recorded.


      There was no significant difference seen in the patients' hemodynamic characteristics in both groups. Pain at the end of surgery and an hour after it in the PK group was less that was not statistically significant. By Ramsey Sedation Score also significant differences were not seen between groups ( p = 0.68). By using total dose of propofol used also a significant difference was not observed between the two groups ( p = 0.36). Rate of apnea in PK group was 32% and in the PF group was 63%, which this difference was statistically significant ( p < 0.05).


      A comparison between the two drugs combination shows that although in terms of hemodynamic and sedation criteria both groups were similar, but because of the lower amount of pain and apnea in the PK group, this combination may generally in the ERCP procedure is more efficient and safer.

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      Most cited references 20

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      Risk factors for complications after performance of ERCP.

      ERCP has become widely available for the diagnosis and treatment of benign and malignant pancreaticobiliary diseases. In this prospective study, the overall complication rate and risk factors for diagnostic and therapeutic ERCP were identified. Data were collected prospectively on patient characteristics and endoscopic techniques from 1223 ERCPs performed at a single referral center and entered into a database. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for ERCP-associated complications. Of 1223 ERCPs performed, 554 (45.3%) were diagnostic and 667 (54.7%) therapeutic. The overall complication rate was 11.2%. Post-ERCP pancreatitis was the most common (7.2%) and in 93% of cases was self-limiting, requiring only conservative treatment. Bleeding occurred in 10 patients (0.8%) and was related to a therapeutic procedure in all cases. Nine patients had cholangitis develop, most cases being secondary to incomplete drainage. There was one perforation (0.08%). All other complications totaled 1.5%. Variables derived from cannulation technique associated with an increased risk for post-ERCP pancreatitis were precut access papillotomy (20%), multiple cannulation attempts (14.9%), sphincterotome use to achieve cannulation (13.1%), pancreatic duct manipulation (13%), multiple pancreatic injections (12.3%), guidewire use to achieve cannulation (10.2%), and the extent of pancreatic duct opacification (10%). Patient characteristics associated with an increased risk of pancreatitis were sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (21.7%) documented by manometry, previous ERCP-related pancreatitis (19%), and recurrent pancreatitis (16.2%). Pain during the procedure was an important indicator of an increased risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis (27%). Independent risk factors for post-ERCP pancreatitis were identified as a history of recurrent pancreatitis, previous ERCP-related pancreatitis, multiple cannulation attempts, pancreatic brush cytology, and pain during the procedure. The most frequent ERCP-related complication was pancreatitis, which was mild in the majority of patients. The frequency of post-ERCP pancreatitis was similar for both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Bleeding was rare and mostly associated with sphincterotomy. Other complications such as cholangitis and perforation were rare. Specific patient- and technique-related characteristics that can increase the risk of post-ERCP complications were identified.
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        Sedation and analgesia for procedures in children.

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          Propofol sedation with fentanyl or midazolam during oesophagogastroduodenoscopy in children.

          Sedation is commonly used to facilitate diagnostic procedures in children. The aim of our study was to investigate sedation in children using propofol alone or combined with fentanyl or midazolam with regard to efficacy, adverse reactions or side-effects related to the drugs, ease of operation for the endoscopist, and time to discharge from the post-anaesthesia care unit. We prospectively studied 240 children, aged 1-12 yr of age, undergoing endoscopic procedures of the upper gastrointestinal tract. The patients were given an oral premedication with midazolam (0.5 mg kg(-1)) and were then randomly allocated to one of the three study groups: propofol alone (Group P), propofol with fentanyl 1 mug kg-1 (Group PF) or propofol with midazolam 0.1 mg kg(-1) (Group PM). Additional doses of propofol given during the procedure were recorded. Adequacy of sedation and ease of procedure (easy, adequate, impossible) were evaluated by the endoscopist, who was blinded as to the drugs used. The duration of the procedure and the recovery period were similar in the three groups. The number of patients requiring supplemental doses of propofol to permit safe completion of gastroscopy was 31 in Group P (=39%; eight of these required two additional doses), 14 in Group PM (=18%), and 11 in Group PF (=13%) (P < 0.05). There was a lower incidence of adverse events in Group PM and in Group PF than in Group P (P < 0.05). Propofol in combination with fentanyl or midazolam gives better sedation and ease of endoscopy than propofol alone.

            Author and article information

            [a ]Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
            [b ]Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Research Center, Razi Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran
            Author notes
            [] Corresponding author. Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Research Center, Imam Khomeini Hospital, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Box: 1519, 6193673166, Ahvaz, Iran. Tel.: +98 9161135201; fax: +98 6132220168. rezaakh@
            Biomed J
            Biomed J
            Biomedical Journal
            Chang Gung University
            21 June 2016
            April 2016
            21 June 2016
            : 39
            : 2
            : 145-149
            © 2016 Chang Gung University. Publishing services by Elsevier B.V.

            This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (

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