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      Factors Influencing the Effectiveness of Qatari Shura’s Councils within the Relevant Governing Legislation Translated title: ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﺛّﺮﺓ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺠﺎﻟﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺿﻮﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ ﻟﻬﺎ

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          Abstract

          In its recent history, the State of Qatar has known four advisory councils (Shura councils), the first council was established under law number (6) for the year 1964, the second council was stipulated by the provisional statute in 1970, the third council was established under the amended provisional statute in 1972, and finally, the permanent constitution of the State of Qatar (2004) stipulated the establishment of a council representing the legislative authority called Shura Council. In this study, we highlight the factors that influence the effectiveness of the Qatari Shura councils in accordance with the legislation that regulated their provisions since the establishment of the first one before the mid-sixties of the last century until the promulgation of the permanent constitution. Effectiveness in this context refers to the Advisory Council’s impact on the reality of political life in the State of Qatar. There are four factors that we see impact the effectiveness of the council: the mechanism its composition and the selection of its president, the terms of its reference, the decisions issued by it, and the duration of membership in it. If the council was appointed by the governor, it shares the same opinions and stance as the government, however if it was elected by the people, it derives its strength from them, and conducts political control and supervision over the government. Moreover, the terms of reference of the council may be an important factor in its effectiveness. If these terms were modest and limited, the council loses its impact on the political decision, but if they were fundamental in legislation and political and financial control, the council becomes influential and prevents the deviation of the executive power. The terms of reference of the council are related to the nature of its resolutions, if its recommendations were non-binding, these terms lose their value, but if they were final, it manifests itself in practical reality. Finally, a prolonged membership in the council may weaken the member’s performance, enthusiasm, and active participation. The study examines the four aforementioned factors that influence the effectiveness of the council in accordance with successive legislation regulating its provisions in four investigations.

          Translated abstract

          ﻋﺮﻓﺖ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻗﻄﺮ - ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎﺭﻳﺨﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺤﺪﻳﺚ - ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺠﺎﻟﺲ ﻟﻠﺸﻮﺭﻯ، ﺃﻧﺸﺊ ﺃﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ القانون ﺭﻗﻢ 6 ﻟﺴﻨﺔ 1964، ﺃﻣﺎ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ؛ ﻓﻘﺪ ﻧﺺ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ للعام 1970، ثم ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺚ، الذي ﺃﻧﺸﺊ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺐ ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍﻷﺳﺎﺳﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺆﻗﺖ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﺪﻝ ﻋﺎﻡ 1972، ﻭﺃﺧﻴﺮًﺍ ﻧﺺ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻢ ﻟﺪﻭﻟﺔ ﻗﻄﺮ 2004 ﻋﻠﻰ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﻳﻤﺜﻞ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﻴﺔ ﻳﺴﻤﻰ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ. ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻧﺒﺮﺯ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻣﺠﺎﻟﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﻘﻄﺮﻳﺔ ﻭﻓﻘًﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻧظﻤﺖ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻬﺎ ﻣﻨﺬ ﺇﻧﺸﺎﺀ ﺃﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻗﺒﻴﻞ ﻣﻨﺘﺼﻒ ﺍﻟﺴﺘﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ ﻭﺣﺘﻰ ﺻﺪﻭﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ ﺍﻟﺪﺍﺋﻢ. ﻭﻧﻌﻨﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﻫﻨﺎ ﺇﻣﻜﺎﻧﻴﺔ ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ إﺣﺪﺍﺙ ﺃﺛﺮ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﺎﺓ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺩﻭﻟﺔ ﻗﻄﺮ. ﺃﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻋﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﻧﺮﻯ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﻫﻲ: ﺁﻟﻴﺔ ﺗﺸﻜﻴﻞ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﻭﺍﺧﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺭﺋﻴﺴﻪ، ﻭﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ، ﻭﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ، ﻭﻣﺪﺓ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮﻳﺔ ﻓﻴﻪ. ﻓﺎﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻌﻴﻨًا ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻛﻢ ﺍﺭﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻪ أﺩﺑﻴًا، ﻭﺗﻮﺍﻓﻖ ﺭﺃﻳﻪ ﻣﻊ ﺭﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ، ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻥ ﻣﻨﺘﺨﺒًﺎ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ ﺍﻟﺸﻌﺐ ﺍﺳﺘﻤﺪ ﻗﻮﺗﻪ ﻣﻨﻪ ﻭﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﺣﺮﺍً ﻓﻲ ﻣﻮﺍﺟﻬﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻮﻣﺔ؛ ﻭﻫﻮ ﻳﻤﺎﺭﺱ ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺗﺠﺎﻫﻬﺎ. ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺐ ﺁﺧﺮ؛ ﻗﺪ ﺗﻜﻮﻥ ﻋﺎﻣﻠًﺎ ﻣﺆﺛﺮًﺍ ﻓﻲ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻣﺘﻮﺍﺿﻌﺔ ﻭﻣﺤﺪﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻘﺪ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ، ﻭﺇﻥ ﻣُﻨﺢ ﺍﺧﺘﺎﺻﺎﺻﺎﺕ ﺃﺳﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﺸﺮﻳﻊ ﻭﺍﻟﺮﻗﺎﺑﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﺃﺻﺒﺢ ﻣﺆﺛﺮًﺍ ﻭﻣﺎﻧﻌًﺎ ﻻﻧﺤﺮﺍﻑ ﺍﻟﺴﻠﻄﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻨﻔﻴﺬﻳﺔ. ﺍﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﺗﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑﻄﺒﻴﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺮﺍﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺼﺪﺭ ﻋﻨﻪ، ﻓﺈﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﺗﻮﺻﻴﺎﺕ ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﻠﺰﻣﺔ ﻓﻘﺪﺕ ﺍﻻﺧﺘﺼﺎﺻﺎﺕ ﻗﻴﻤﺘﻬﺎ، ﺃﻣﺎ ﺇﻥ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ ﻧﻬﺎﺋﻴﺔ ﺑﺮﺯ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻮﺍﻗﻊ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﻠﻲ، ﻭﺃﺧﻴﺮًﺍ ﻓﺈﻥ ﺑﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﻀﻮ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ ﻟﻤﺪﺓ ﻃﻮﻳﻠﺔ ﻗﺪ ﻳﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ عطائه ﻭﻳﻀﻌﻒ ﺃﺩﺍﺀﻩ، ﻭﻳﻔﻘﺪﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﺎﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﺤﻴﻮﻳﺔ. ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬﻩ ﺍﻟﺪﺭﺍﺳﺔ ﻧﺒﺤﺚ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻮﺍﻣﻞ ﺍﻷﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺆﺛﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻠﺲ، ﻭﻓﻘًﺎ ﻟﻠﺘﺸﺮﻳﻌﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻌﺎﻗﺒﺔ، ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻧﻈﻤﺖ ﺃﺣﻜﺎﻣﻪ، ﻭﺫﻟك ﻓﻲ أﺭﺑﻌﺔ ﻣﺒﺎﺣﺚ.

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          Author and article information

          Contributors
          QA
          Journal
          International Review of Law
          Qatar University Press
          November 14 2019
          Article
          1226
          10.29117/irl.2018.0027
          0f562ed8-9b76-4649-a549-35dc3024590f
          Copyright @ 2019 International Review of Law المجلة الدولية للقانون
          History

          Law
          ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻴﺔ,Qatari constitution,Constitution,Appointment,Elections,Effectiveness,Shura Council,Advisory Council,ﺍﻟﻨﻈﺎﻡ ﺍلأﺳﺎﺳﻲ,ﺍﻟﺪﺳﺘﻮﺭ,التعيين,ﺍﻧﺘﺨﺎﺑﺎﺕ,ﻣﺠﻠﺲ ﺍﻟﺸﻮﺭﻯ,Legislation,Parliament

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