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      Contact dermatitis on the lower eyelid related to tick infestation: A case report in Taiwan


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          Tick bite on the lower eyelid is a rare condition. We reported a case of contact dermatitis on the lower eyelid related to the tick infestation. Ticks are vectors for disease transmission. Symptoms and treatments for tick-borne diseases were reviewed.

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          Most cited references21

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          Lyme disease-a tick-borne spirochetosis?

          A treponema-like spirochete was detected in and isolated from adult Ixodes dammini, the incriminated tick vector of Lyme disease. Causally related to the spirochetes may be long-lasting cutaneous lesions that appeared on New Zealand White rabbits 10 to 12 weeks after infected ticks fed on them. Samples of serum from patients with Lyme disease were shown by indirect immunofluorescence to contain antibodies to this agent. It is suggested that the newly discovered spirochete is involved in the etiology of Lyme disease.
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            Is Open Access

            Vector Interactions and Molecular Adaptations of Lyme Disease and Relapsing Fever Spirochetes Associated with Transmission by Ticks

            Pathogenic spirochetes in the genus Borrelia are transmitted primarily by two families of ticks. The Lyme disease spirochete, Borrelia burgdorferi, is transmitted by the slow-feeding ixodid tick Ixodes scapularis, whereas the relapsing fever spirochete, B. hermsii, is transmitted by Ornithodoros hermsi, a fast-feeding argasid tick. Lyme disease spirochetes are generally restricted to the midgut in unfed I. scapularis. When nymphal ticks feed, the bacteria pass through the hemocoel to the salivary glands and are transmitted to a new host in the saliva after 2 days. Relapsing fever spirochetes infect the midgut in unfed O. hermsi but persist in other sites including the salivary glands. Thus, relapsing fever spirochetes are efficiently transmitted in saliva by these fast-feeding ticks within minutes of their attachment to a mammalian host. We describe how B. burgdorferi and B. hermsii change their outer surface during their alternating infections in ticks and mammals, which in turn suggests biological functions for a few surface-exposed lipoproteins.
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              Dynamics of Borrelia burgdorferi transmission by nymphal Ixodes dammini ticks.

              J Piesman (1993)
              Groups of 25-30 nymphal Ixodes dammini infected with Borrelia burgdorferi fed on mice for 36, 42, or 48 h. Only 1 (7%) of 14 mice exposed for 36 h became infected as did 3 (25%) of 12 mice exposed for 42 h and 6 (75%) of 8 mice exposed for 48 h. The minimum transmission rate calculation for ticks attached for 36 h was 0.5%; for 42 h, 1.5%; and for 48 h, 5.8%. Homogenates derived from nonfed "flat" nymphs or nymphs fed for 12 h were not infectious to mice. Homogenates derived from nymphs attached for 24 h, however, infected 20% of inoculated mice; homogenates derived from ticks attached for > or = 36 h infected > or = 80% of inoculated mice. Incubation of nonfed ticks at 37 degrees C did not produce infectious homogenates. The ID50 for low-passage JD1 strain spirochetes in 3-week-old mice was 2.69 x 10(3) spirochetes.

                Author and article information

                Taiwan J Ophthalmol
                Taiwan J Ophthalmol
                Taiwan Journal of Ophthalmology
                Medknow Publications & Media Pvt Ltd (India )
                Oct-Dec 2016
                16 July 2016
                : 6
                : 4
                : 201-203
                [a ] Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Keelung, Taiwan
                [b ] College of Medicine, Chang Gung University, Kwei-Shan, Taoyuan, Taiwan
                Author notes
                [* ] Corresponding author. Department of Ophthalmology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, 6F., No. 222, Maijin Rd., Anle Dist., Keelung City 204, Taiwan. E-mail address: m7046@ 123456cgmh.org.tw (J.-W. Yang).
                Copyright: © 2016, The Ophthalmologic Society of Taiwan

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 03 February 2016
                : 18 May 2016
                : 20 May 2016
                Case Report

                ticks,tick bites,tick infestations,contact dermatitis,eyelids


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