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      Insights into the use of paramagnetic Gd(III) complexes in MR-molecular imaging investigations.

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          Abstract

          Can gadolinium III [Gd(III)] complexes be considered good candidates for magnetic resonance (MR)-molecular imaging studies? In this review article, we examine the principal issues that are the basis of successful use of Gd-based protocols in molecular imaging applications. High relaxivity is the primary requisite. Therefore, the design of such paramagnetic probes has to be pursued keeping in mind the relationships between structure, dynamics, and the relevant parameters involved in paramagnetic relaxation processes. Moreover, the limited number of target molecules on cellular membranes makes it necessary to define strategies aimed at delivering many Gd-containing moieties to the sites of interest. Examples are reported for the attainment of very high relaxivities for the design of new routes for pursuing the accumulation of small sized Gd(III) complexes at the targeting sites. An efficient cellular uptake of Gd-containing probes is the key step for attaining the visualization of targeted cells by MR imaging, and selected examples are reported. In this context, the problem of the assessment of the minimum amount of Gd(III) complexes necessary for the MR imaging-visualization of cells has been addressed by reporting the authors' observations on the cell-internalization of Gd(III) complexes. A particularly efficient delivery system is represented by Gd-loaded apoferritin, which allows the MR visualization of hepatocytes when the number of Gd-complexes per cell is 4 +/- 1 x 10(7). Finally, the potential of responsive systems is considered by outlining the exploitation of the amplification effect brought about by the action of a specific enzymatic activity on the relaxivity of a suitably functionalized Gd(III) complex.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          J Magn Reson Imaging
          Journal of magnetic resonance imaging : JMRI
          1053-1807
          1053-1807
          Oct 2002
          : 16
          : 4
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Dipartimento di Chimica IFM, Università di Torino, Torino, Italy. silvio.aime@unito.it
          Article
          10.1002/jmri.10180
          12353255
          Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

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