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      A new species of the toothed toad Oreolalax (Anura, Megophryidae) from Sichuan Province, China

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          Abstract

          The toad genus Oreolalax is widely distributed in southwest China and northern Vietnam. A new species of the genus is described from Sichuan Province, China. Phylogenetic analyses based on the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene sequences supported the new species as an independent clade clustered into the clade also containing O. nanjiangensis and O. chuanbeiensis . The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: body size moderate (SVL 51.2–64.2 mm in males); head broad; tympanum hidden; interorbital region with dark triangular pattern; belly with marbling; male lacking spines on lip margin; spiny patches on chest small with thick sparse spines in male; nuptial spines thick and sparse; tibio-tarsal articulation reaching beyond nostril when leg stretched forward; toe webbing at base.

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          Most cited references 36

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          A simplified table for staging anuran embryos and larvae with notes on identification

           KL Gosner,  Gosner,  KL GOSNER (1960)
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            Efficient sequencing of Anuran mtDNAs and a mitogenomic exploration of the phylogeny and evolution of frogs.

            Anura (frogs and toads) constitute over 88% of living amphibian diversity but many important questions about their phylogeny and evolution remain unresolved. For this study, we developed an efficient method for sequencing anuran mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) by amplifying the mitochondrial genome in 12 overlapping fragments using frog-specific universal primer sets. Based on this method, we generated 47 nearly complete, new anuran mitochondrial genomes and discovered nine novel gene arrangements. By combining the new data and published anuran mitochondrial genomes, we assembled a large mitogenomic data set (11,007 nt) including 90 frog species, representing 39 of 53 recognized anuran families, to investigate their phylogenetic relationships and evolutionary history. The resulting tree strongly supported a paraphyletic arrangement of archaeobatrachian (=nonneobatrachian) frogs, with Leiopelmatoidea branching first, followed by Discoglossoidea, Pipoidea, and Pelobatoidea. Within Neobatrachia, the South African Heleophrynidae is the sister-taxon to all other neobatrachian frogs and the Seychelles-endemic Sooglossidae is recovered as the sister-taxon to Ranoidea. These phylogenetic relationships agree with many nuclear gene studies. The chronogram derived from two Bayesian relaxed clock methods (MultiDivTime and BEAST) suggests that modern frogs (Anura) originated in the early Triassic about 244 Ma and the appearance of Neobatrachia took place in the late Jurassic about 163 Ma. The initial diversifications of two species-rich superfamilies Hyloidea and Ranoidea commenced 110 and 133 Ma, respectively. These times are older than some other estimates by approximately 30-40 My. Compared with nuclear data, mtDNA produces compatible time estimates for deep nodes (>150 Ma), but apparently older estimates for more shallow nodes. Our study shows that, although it evolves relatively rapidly and behaves much as a single locus, mtDNA performs well for both phylogenetic and divergence time inferences and will provide important reference hypotheses for the phylogeny and evolution of frogs.
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              A novel multilocus phylogenetic estimation reveals unrecognized diversity in Asian horned toads, genus Megophrys sensu lato (Anura: Megophryidae).

              The horned toad assemblage, genus Megophrys sensu lato, currently includes three groups previously recognized as the genera Atympanophrys, Xenophrys and Megophrys sensu stricto. The taxonomic status and species composition of the three groups remain controversial due to conflicting phenotypic analyses and insufficient phylogenetic reconstruction; likewise, the position of the monotypic Borneophrys remains uncertain with respect to the horned toads. Further, the diversity of the horned toads remains poorly understood, especially for widespread species. Herein, we evaluate species-level diversity based on 45 of the 57 described species from throughout southern China, Southeast Asia and the Himalayas using Bayesian inference trees and the Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) approach. We estimate the phylogeny using both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA data. Analyses reveal statistically significant mito-nuclear discordance. All analyses resolve paraphyly for horned toads involving multiple strongly supported clades. These clades correspond with geography. We resurrect the genera Atympanophrys and Xenophrys from the synonymy of Megophrys to eliminate paraphyly of Megophrys s.l. and to account for the morphological, molecular and biogeographic differences among these groups, but we also provide an alternative option. Our study suggests that Borneophrys is junior synonym of Megophrys sensu stricto. We provide an estimation of timeframe for the horned toads. The mitochondrial and nuclear trees indicate the presence of many putative undescribed species. Widespread species, such as Xenophrys major and X. minor, likely have dramatically underestimated diversity. The integration of morphological and molecular evidence can validate this discovery. Montane forest dynamics appear to play a significant role in driving diversification of horned toads.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                22 April 2020
                : 929
                : 93-115
                Affiliations
                [1 ] CAS Key Laboratory of Mountain Ecological Restoration and Bioresource Utilization and Ecological Restoration Biodiversity Conservation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chengdu 610041, China Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences Chengdu China
                [2 ] Management Center of Sichuan White River National Nature Reserve, Pengzhou 611900, China Management Center of Sichuan White River National Nature Reserve Pengzhou China
                [3 ] University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China University of Chinese Academy of Sciences Beijing China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Bin Wang ( wangbin@ 123456cib.ac.cn ); Feng Xie ( xiefeng@ 123456cib.ac.cn )

                Academic editor: A. Ohler

                Article
                49748
                10.3897/zookeys.929.49748
                7192958
                Yinmeng Hou, Shengchao Shi, Daming Hu, Yue Deng, Jianping Jiang, Feng Xie, Bin Wang

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2017YFC0505202), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31201702), and Project supported by the Biodiversity investigation, Observation and Assessment Program (2019-2023) of Ministry of Ecology and Environment of China
                Categories
                Research Article
                Amphibia
                Anura
                Megophryidae
                Vertebrata
                Taxonomy
                Cenozoic
                Neogene
                Asia
                China

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