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      Sustainable carbon-dots: recent advances in green carbon dots for sensing and bioimaging

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          Abstract

          This review article highlights recent progress in use of green precursors for synthesis of carbon-dots and their applications in fluorescence-based sensing and bioimaging.

          Abstract

          The past decade has witnessed the emergence of carbon dots (c-dots), outshining other members of the carbon family because of their outstanding properties in fluorescence, cytocompatibility, photostability, electronic, mechanical and other chemical properties. This has resulted in an increasing number of applications in bioimaging, sensing, photovoltaic and medicine. Nature offers a wealth of exciting precursors that motivate constant persuasion of benign synthetic routes. Consequently, the past 5 years has seen a tremendous rise in green synthetic approaches of c-dots. This study reviews the journey of green c-dots by means of green sources of synthesis and their applications, with the major focus on various sensors and bioimaging probes.

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          Most cited references130

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          Highly luminescent carbon nanodots by microwave-assisted pyrolysis

          Carbon nanodots (CDs) with a low cytotoxicity have been synthesized by one-step microwave-assisted pyrolysis of citric acid in the presence of various amine molecules. The primary amine molecules have been confirmed to serve dual roles as N-doping precursors and surface passivation agents, both of which considerably enhanced the fluorescence of the CDs.
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            Economical, green synthesis of fluorescent carbon nanoparticles and their use as probes for sensitive and selective detection of mercury(II) ions.

            The present article reports on a simple, economical, and green preparative strategy toward water-soluble, fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (CPs) with a quantum yield of approximately 6.9% by hydrothermal process using low cost wastes of pomelo peel as a carbon source for the first time. We further explore the use of such CPs as probes for a fluorescent Hg(2+) detection application, which is based on Hg(2+)-induced fluorescence quenching of CPs. This sensing system exhibits excellent sensitivity and selectivity toward Hg(2+), and a detection limit as low as 0.23 nM is achieved. The practical use of this system for Hg(2+) determination in lake water samples is also demonstrated successfully.
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              Nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, highly photoluminescent carbon dots from ammonium citrate.

              The synthesis of water-soluble nitrogen-doped carbon dots has received great attention, due to their wide applications in oxygen reduction reaction, cell imaging, sensors, and drug delivery. Herein, nitrogen-doped, carbon-rich, highly photoluminescent carbon dots have been synthesized for the first time from ammonium citrate under hydrothermal conditions. The obtained nitrogen-doped carbon dots possess bright blue luminescence, short fluorescence lifetime, pH-sensitivity and excellent stability at a high salt concentration. They have potential to be used for pH sensors, cell imaging, solar cells, and photocatalysis.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JMCBDV
                Journal of Materials Chemistry B
                J. Mater. Chem. B
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                2050-750X
                2050-7518
                2017
                2017
                : 5
                : 45
                : 8904-8924
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Center for Biosciences and Bio-Medical Engineering
                [2 ]Simrol
                [3 ]Indore 453552
                [4 ]India
                [5 ]Discipline of Metallurgy Engineering and Materials Science
                Article
                10.1039/C7TB02484C
                0f6dc8d1-58ac-4344-ba74-ec7b00db3d0e
                © 2017

                http://rsc.li/journals-terms-of-use

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                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C7TB02484C

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