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      The grapevine genome sequence suggests ancestral hexaploidization in major angiosperm phyla

      The French–Italian Public Consortium for Grapevine Genome Characterization

      Nature

      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Abstract

          The analysis of the first plant genomes provided unexpected evidence for genome duplication events in species that had previously been considered as true diploids on the basis of their genetics. These polyploidization events may have had important consequences in plant evolution, in particular for species radiation and adaptation and for the modulation of functional capacities. Here we report a high-quality draft of the genome sequence of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) obtained from a highly homozygous genotype. The draft sequence of the grapevine genome is the fourth one produced so far for flowering plants, the second for a woody species and the first for a fruit crop (cultivated for both fruit and beverage). Grapevine was selected because of its important place in the cultural heritage of humanity beginning during the Neolithic period. Several large expansions of gene families with roles in aromatic features are observed. The grapevine genome has not undergone recent genome duplication, thus enabling the discovery of ancestral traits and features of the genetic organization of flowering plants. This analysis reveals the contribution of three ancestral genomes to the grapevine haploid content. This ancestral arrangement is common to many dicotyledonous plants but is absent from the genome of rice, which is a monocotyledon. Furthermore, we explain the chronology of previously described whole-genome duplication events in the evolution of flowering plants.

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          Most cited references 23

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          Identification of common molecular subsequences.

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            Polyploidy and genome evolution in plants.

            Genome doubling (polyploidy) has been and continues to be a pervasive force in plant evolution. Modern plant genomes harbor evidence of multiple rounds of past polyploidization events, often followed by massive silencing and elimination of duplicated genes. Recent studies have refined our inferences of the number and timing of polyploidy events and the impact of these events on genome structure. Many polyploids experience extensive and rapid genomic alterations, some arising with the onset of polyploidy. Survivorship of duplicated genes are differential across gene classes, with some duplicate genes more prone to retention than others. Recent theory is now supported by evidence showing that genes that are retained in duplicate typically diversify in function or undergo subfunctionalization. Polyploidy has extensive effects on gene expression, with gene silencing accompanying polyploid formation and continuing over evolutionary time.
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              Functional divergence of duplicated genes formed by polyploidy during Arabidopsis evolution.

              To study the evolutionary effects of polyploidy on plant gene functions, we analyzed functional genomics data for a large number of duplicated gene pairs formed by ancient polyploidy events in Arabidopsis thaliana. Genes retained in duplicate are not distributed evenly among Gene Ontology or Munich Information Center for Protein Sequences functional categories, which indicates a nonrandom process of gene loss. Genes involved in signal transduction and transcription have been preferentially retained, and those involved in DNA repair have been preferentially lost. Although the two members of each gene pair must originally have had identical transcription profiles, less than half of the pairs formed by the most recent polyploidy event still retain significantly correlated profiles. We identified several cases where groups of duplicated gene pairs have diverged in concert, forming two parallel networks, each containing one member of each gene pair. In these cases, the expression of each gene is strongly correlated with the other nonhomologous genes in its network but poorly correlated with its paralog in the other network. We also find that the rate of protein sequence evolution has been significantly asymmetric in >20% of duplicate pairs. Together, these results suggest that functional diversification of the surviving duplicated genes is a major feature of the long-term evolution of polyploids.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature
                Nature
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0028-0836
                1476-4687
                September 2007
                August 26 2007
                September 2007
                : 449
                : 7161
                : 463-467
                Article
                10.1038/nature06148
                17721507
                © 2007

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/

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