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      A new species of Odorrana (Anura, Ranidae) from Hunan Province, China

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          A new species, Odorrana sangzhiensis sp. nov., is described, based on five specimens from Sangzhi County, Zhangjiajie City, Hunan Province, China. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, based on mitochondrial 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA gene sequences, strongly support the new species as a monophyletic group nested into the O. schmackeri species complex. The new species can be distinguished from its congeners by a combination of the following characters: (1) body size medium (SVL: 42.1–45.1 mm in males, 83.3–92.7 mm in females); (2) dorsolateral folds absent; (3) tympanum diameter 1.53 times as long as the width of the disc of finger III in females; 2.3 times in males; (4) dorsal skin green with dense granules and sparse irregular brown spots; males with several large warts on dorsum; (5) two metacarpal tubercles; (6) relative finger lengths: I ≤ II < IV < III; (7) tibiotarsal articulation beyond the tip of the snout; (8) ventral surface smooth in females; throat and chest having pale spinules in adult males; (9) dorsal limbs green or yellow green with brown transverse bands; and (10) paired external vocal sacs located at corners of the throat, finger I with light yellow nuptial pad in males. This discovery increases the number of Odorrana species to 59 and those known from China to 37.

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          Most cited references 55

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          MEGA7: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis Version 7.0 for Bigger Datasets.

          We present the latest version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (Mega) software, which contains many sophisticated methods and tools for phylogenomics and phylomedicine. In this major upgrade, Mega has been optimized for use on 64-bit computing systems for analyzing larger datasets. Researchers can now explore and analyze tens of thousands of sequences in Mega The new version also provides an advanced wizard for building timetrees and includes a new functionality to automatically predict gene duplication events in gene family trees. The 64-bit Mega is made available in two interfaces: graphical and command line. The graphical user interface (GUI) is a native Microsoft Windows application that can also be used on Mac OS X. The command line Mega is available as native applications for Windows, Linux, and Mac OS X. They are intended for use in high-throughput and scripted analysis. Both versions are available from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space

            Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple analyses to be run in parallel with convergence progress monitored on the fly. The introduction of new proposals and automatic optimization of tuning parameters has improved convergence for many problems. The new version also sports significantly faster likelihood calculations through streaming single-instruction-multiple-data extensions (SSE) and support of the BEAGLE library, allowing likelihood calculations to be delegated to graphics processing units (GPUs) on compatible hardware. Speedup factors range from around 2 with SSE code to more than 50 with BEAGLE for codon problems. Checkpointing across all models allows long runs to be completed even when an analysis is prematurely terminated. New models include relaxed clocks, dating, model averaging across time-reversible substitution models, and support for hard, negative, and partial (backbone) tree constraints. Inference of species trees from gene trees is supported by full incorporation of the Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) algorithms. Marginal model likelihoods for Bayes factor tests can be estimated accurately across the entire model space using the stepping stone method. The new version provides more output options than previously, including samples of ancestral states, site rates, site d N /d S rations, branch rates, and node dates. A wide range of statistics on tree parameters can also be output for visualization in FigTree and compatible software.
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              Dynamics of mitochondrial DNA evolution in animals: amplification and sequencing with conserved primers.

              With a standard set of primers directed toward conserved regions, we have used the polymerase chain reaction to amplify homologous segments of mtDNA from more than 100 animal species, including mammals, birds, amphibians, fishes, and some invertebrates. Amplification and direct sequencing were possible using unpurified mtDNA from nanogram samples of fresh specimens and microgram amounts of tissues preserved for months in alcohol or decades in the dry state. The bird and fish sequences evolve with the same strong bias toward transitions that holds for mammals. However, because the light strand of birds is deficient in thymine, thymine to cytosine transitions are less common than in other taxa. Amino acid replacement in a segment of the cytochrome b gene is faster in mammals and birds than in fishes and the pattern of replacements fits the structural hypothesis for cytochrome b. The unexpectedly wide taxonomic utility of these primers offers opportunities for phylogenetic and population research.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                15 March 2021
                : 1024
                : 91-115
                [1 ] Institute of Wildlife Conservation, Central South University of Forestry and Technology, Changsha 410004, China Central South University of Forestry and Technology Changsha China
                [2 ] Institute of Herpetology, Shenyang Normal University, Shenyang 110034, China Shenyang Normal University Shenyang China
                [3 ] Bureau of Hunan Badagongshan National Nature Reserve, Sangzhi 427100, China Bureau of Hunan Badagongshan National Nature Reserve Sangzhi China
                [4 ] State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Regional Eco-process and Function Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012, China Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences Beijing China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Daode Yang ( csfuyydd@ 123456126.com )

                Academic editor: A. Crottini

                Bing Zhang, Yuan Li, Ke Hu, Pipeng Li, Zhirong Gu, Nengwen Xiao, Daode Yang

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China 501100001809 http://doi.org/10.13039/501100001809
                Research Article
                Evolutionary Biology
                Molecular Systematics
                Far East


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