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      Realized heritability, cross-resistance and high risk of resistance development to spirotetramat in dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae), an emerging threat to BT cotton in Pakistan

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      Phytoparasitica
      Springer Science and Business Media LLC

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          Introduction to Quantitative Genetics

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            A Method of Computing the Effectiveness of an Insecticide

            W. Abbott (1925)
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              Is Open Access

              The evolutionary origins of pesticide resistance

              Abstract Durable crop protection is an essential component of current and future food security. However, the effectiveness of pesticides is threatened by the evolution of resistant pathogens, weeds and insect pests. Pesticides are mostly novel synthetic compounds, and yet target species are often able to evolve resistance soon after a new compound is introduced. Therefore, pesticide resistance provides an interesting case of rapid evolution under strong selective pressures, which can be used to address fundamental questions concerning the evolutionary origins of adaptations to novel conditions. We ask: (i) whether this adaptive potential originates mainly from de novo mutations or from standing variation; (ii) which pre‐existing traits could form the basis of resistance adaptations; and (iii) whether recurrence of resistance mechanisms among species results from interbreeding and horizontal gene transfer or from independent parallel evolution. We compare and contrast the three major pesticide groups: insecticides, herbicides and fungicides. Whilst resistance to these three agrochemical classes is to some extent united by the common evolutionary forces at play, there are also important differences. Fungicide resistance appears to evolve, in most cases, by de novo point mutations in the target‐site encoding genes; herbicide resistance often evolves through selection of polygenic metabolic resistance from standing variation; and insecticide resistance evolves through a combination of standing variation and de novo mutations in the target site or major metabolic resistance genes. This has practical implications for resistance risk assessment and management, and lessons learnt from pesticide resistance should be applied in the deployment of novel, non‐chemical pest‐control methods.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Phytoparasitica
                Phytoparasitica
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                0334-2123
                1876-7184
                April 2022
                November 18 2021
                April 2022
                : 50
                : 2
                : 453-463
                Article
                10.1007/s12600-021-00967-z
                0f83a249-39a7-48bc-81fe-6cd337763ff4
                © 2022

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

                https://www.springer.com/tdm

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