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      Risk for Acute Renal Failure in Patients Hospitalized for Decompensated Congestive Heart Failure

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Congestive heart failure (CHF) is an important cause of hospital admissions and is associated with an increased risk for development of acute renal failure (ARF). The purpose of this study was to describe the incidence of ARF, to ascertain risk factors for its development, and to determine whether ARF impacts hospital outcomes. Methods: Review was conducted of 509 hospital medical records of patients hospitalized with a principal diagnosis of CHF during 2004. ARF was defined as an increase in serum creatinine of 0.5 mg/dl compared to the admission value. Multivariable analysis was used to identify independent predictors of ARF. Results: Most patients had reduced renal function at the time of admission with mean serum creatinine of 1.45 ± 0.72 and calculated creatinine clearance of 43.1 ml/min. ARF developed during the hospitalization in 21% of patients, with a peak increase in serum creatinine of 0.5–3.3 mg/dl. Most cases occurred on hospital days 4–6 (69.5% of cases). ARF was associated with increased risk for in-hospital mortality and increased length of hospital stay. Risk factors for ARF included diabetes, elevated admission serum creatinine and reduced serum sodium and echocardiographic demonstration of diastolic dysfunction. Neither diuretic nor ACEI/ARB treatment was associated with increased risk. Conclusion: ARF is a common complication among patients hospitalized for CHF, and is associated with increased risk for adverse outcomes. Certain clinical characteristics present at the time of admission help identify patients at increased risk.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Recommendations for improving serum creatinine measurement: a report from the Laboratory Working Group of the National Kidney Disease Education Program.

           G. Myers (2006)
          Reliable serum creatinine measurements in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) estimation are critical to ongoing global public health efforts to increase the diagnosis and treatment of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We present an overview of the commonly used methods for the determination of serum creatinine, method limitations, and method performance in conjunction with the development of analytical performance criteria. Available resources for standardization of serum creatinine measurement are discussed, and recommendations for measurement improvement are given. The National Kidney Disease Education Program (NKDEP) Laboratory Working Group reviewed problems related to serum creatinine measurement for estimating GFR and prepared recommendations to standardize and improve creatinine measurement. The NKDEP Laboratory Working Group, in collaboration with international professional organizations, has developed a plan that enables standardization and improved accuracy (trueness) of serum creatinine measurements in clinical laboratories worldwide that includes the use of the estimating equation for GFR based on serum creatinine concentration that was developed from the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) study. The current variability in serum creatinine measurements renders all estimating equations for GFR, including the MDRD Study equation, less accurate in the normal and slightly increased range of serum creatinine concentrations [<133 micromol/L (1.5 mg/dL)], which is the relevant range for detecting CKD [<60 mL.min(-1).(1.73 m2)(-1)]. Many automated routine methods for serum creatinine measurement meet or exceed the required precision; therefore, reduction of analytical bias in creatinine assays is needed. Standardization of calibration does not correct for analytical interferences (nonspecificity bias). The bias and nonspecificity problems associated with some of the routine methods must be addressed.
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            Incidence, predictors at admission, and impact of worsening renal function among patients hospitalized with heart failure.

            The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of worsening renal function (WRF) among hospitalized heart failure (HF) patients, clinical predictors of WRF, and hospital outcomes associated with WRF. Impaired renal function is associated with poor outcomes among chronic HF patients. Chart reviews were performed on 1,004 consecutive patients admitted for a primary diagnosis of HF from 11 geographically diverse hospitals. Cox regression model analysis was used to identify independent predictors for WRF, defined as a rise in serum creatinine of >0.3 mg/dl (26.5 micromol/l). Bivariate analysis was used to determine associations of development of WRF with outcomes (in-hospital death, in-hospital complications, and length of stay). Among 1,004 HF patients studied, WRF developed in 27%. In the majority of cases, WRF occurred within three days of admission. History of HF or diabetes mellitus, admission creatinine > or =1.5 mg/dl (132.6 micromol/l), and systolic blood pressure >160 mm Hg were independently associated with higher risk of WRF. A point score based on these characteristics and their relative risk ratios predicted those at risk for WRF. Hospital deaths (adjusted risk ratio [ARR] 7.5; 95% confidence intervals [CI] 2.9, 19.3), complications (ARR 2.1; CI 1.5, 3.0), and length of hospitalizations >10 days (ARR 3.2, CI 2.2, 4.9) were greater among patients with WRF. Worsening renal function occurs frequently among hospitalized HF patients and is associated with significantly worse outcomes. Clinical characteristics available at hospital admission can be used to identify patients at increased risk for developing WRF.
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              The prognostic importance of different definitions of worsening renal function in congestive heart failure.

              Worsening renal function in patients hospitalized for heart failure portends a poor prognosis. However, criteria used to define worsening renal function are arbitrary, and the implications of different definitions remain unclear. We therefore compared the prognostic importance of various definitions of worsening renal function in 1,002 patients hospitalized for congestive heart failure (CHF). The patient population was 49% female, aged 67 +/- 15 years. Twenty-three percent had a prior history of renal failure, 73% had known depressed ejection fraction, and 63% had known CHF. On admission to the hospital, 47% were receiving ACE inhibitors, 22% beta-blockers, 70% diuretics and 6% NAID's. 72% developed increased serum creatinine during the hospitalization, with 20% developing an increase of > or = 0.5 mg/dL. Worsening renal function predicted both in-hospital mortality and length of stay > 10 days. Even an increased creatinine of 0.1 mg/dL was associated with worse outcome. Sensitivity for death decreased from 92% to 65% as the threshold for increased creatinine was raised from 0.1 to 0.5 mg/dL, with specificity increasing from 28% to 81%. At a threshold of a 0.3 mg/dL increase, sensitivity was 81% and specificity was 62% for death and 64% and 65% for length of stay >10 days. Adding a requirement of final creatinine of > or = 1.5 mg/dL improved specificity. This analysis demonstrates that any detectable decrease in renal function is associated with increased mortality and prolonged hospital stay. This suggests that therapeutic interventions which improve renal function might be beneficial.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2007
                March 2007
                24 January 2007
                : 27
                : 1
                : 55-62
                Affiliations
                Winthrop University Hospital, Mineola, N.Y., USA
                Article
                99012 Am J Nephrol 2007;27:55–62
                10.1159/000099012
                17259694
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 3, References: 18, Pages: 8
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/99012
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Morbidity, Acute renal failure, Congestive heart failure

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