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      Oxidative stress in hemodialysis: Causative mechanisms, clinical implications, and possible therapeutic interventions

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          Strong association between malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure.

          Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and malnutrition are widely recognized as leading causes of the increased morbidity and mortality observed in uremic patients. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase protein, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in nonrenal patient populations. In chronic renal failure (CRF), the prevalence of an acute-phase response has been associated with an increased mortality. One hundred and nine predialysis patients (age 52 +/- 1 years) with terminal CRF (glomerular filtration rate 7 +/- 1 ml/min) were studied. By using noninvasive B-mode ultrasonography, the cross-sectional carotid intima-media area was calculated, and the presence or absence of carotid plaques was determined. Nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment (SGA), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum albumin, serum creatinine, serum urea, and 24-hour urine urea excretion. The presence of an inflammatory reaction was assessed by CRP, fibrinogen (N = 46), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; N = 87). Lipid parameters, including Lp(a) and apo(a)-isoforms, as well as markers of oxidative stress (autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein and vitamin E), were also determined. Compared with healthy controls, CRF patients had an increased mean carotid intima-media area (18.3 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.2 +/- 0.7 mm2, P or = 10 mg/liter). Malnourished patients had higher CRP levels (23 +/- 3 vs. 13 +/- 2 mg/liter, P < 0.01), elevated calculated intima-media area (20.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 16.9 +/- 0.7 mm2, P < 0.01) and a higher prevalence of carotid plaques (90 vs. 60%, P < 0.0001) compared with well-nourished patients. During stepwise multivariate analysis adjusting for age and gender, vitamin E (P < 0.05) and CRP (P < 0.05) remained associated with an increased intima-media area. The presence of carotid plaques was significantly associated with age (P < 0.001), log oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL; P < 0.01), and small apo(a) isoform size (P < 0.05) in a multivariate logistic regression model. These results indicate that the rapidly developing atherosclerosis in advanced CRF appears to be caused by a synergism of different mechanisms, such as malnutrition, inflammation, oxidative stress, and genetic components. Apart from classic risk factors, low vitamin E levels and elevated CRP levels are associated with an increased intima-media area, whereas small molecular weight apo(a) isoforms and increased levels of oxLDL are associated with the presence of carotid plaques.
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            The elephant in uremia: oxidant stress as a unifying concept of cardiovascular disease in uremia.

            Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of mortality in uremic patients. In large cross-sectional studies of dialysis patients, traditional cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension and hypercholesterolemia have been found to have low predictive power, while markers of inflammation and malnutrition are highly correlated with cardiovascular mortality. However, the pathophysiology of the disease process that links uremia, inflammation, and malnutrition with increased cardiovascular complications is not well understood. We hereby propose the hypothesis that increased oxidative stress and its sequalae is a major contributor to increased atherosclerosis and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality found in uremia. This hypothesis is based on studies that conclusively demonstrate an increased oxidative burden in uremic patients, before and particularly after renal replacement therapies, as evidenced by higher concentrations of multiple biomarkers of oxidative stress. This hypothesis also provides a framework to explain the link that activated phagocytes provide between oxidative stress and inflammation (from infectious and non-infections causes) and the synergistic role that malnutrition (as reflected by low concentrations of albumin and/or antioxidants) contributes to the increased burden of cardiovascular disease in uremia. We further propose that retained uremic solutes such as beta-2 microglobulin, advanced glycosylated end products (AGE), cysteine, and homocysteine, which are substrates for oxidative injury, further contribute to the pro-atherogenic milieu of uremia. Dialytic therapy, which acts to reduce the concentration of oxidized substrates, improves the redox balance. However, processes related to dialytic therapy, such as the prolonged use of catheters for vascular access and the use of bioincompatible dialysis membranes, can contribute to a pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative state and thus to a pro-atherogenic state. Anti-oxidative therapeutic strategies for patients with uremia are in their very early stages; nonetheless, early studies demonstrate the potential for significant efficacy in reducing cardiovascular complications.
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              Oxidative stress is progressively enhanced with advancing stages of CKD.

              Oxidative stress appears to have a central role in the pathophysiological process of uremia and its complications, including cardiovascular disease. However, there is little evidence to suggest how early oxidative stress starts developing during the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The aim of this study is to assess oxidative stress activity in a cross-sectional study of patients with CKD stages 1 to 4. Eighty-seven steady patients (47 men, 40 women) with a median age of 62 years (range, 28 to 84 years) and mean estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 57 mL/min (0.95 mL/s) were studied. Levels of plasma 8-isoprostanes (8-epiPGF2a) and serum total antioxidant status (TAS) were used as markers of oxidative stress. 8-epiPGF2a levels were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method, whereas a chromatometric method was used to determine TAS. Plasma 8-epiPGF2a levels increased significantly as CKD stages advanced (P < 0.001). There was a highly significant inverse correlation between 8-epiPGF2a level and GFR (P < 0.01). Serum TAS levels also increased in a similar fashion (P < 0.009) and showed a significant inverse correlation with GFR (P < 0.01). 8-epiPGF2a and TAS levels showed a positive correlation (P < 0.05). Multiple regression analysis showed that the most significant predictor variable for 8-epiPGF2a level was eGFR, whereas the association between eGFR and TAS was affected strongly by confounding variables, mainly uric acid level. Oxidative stress appears to increase as CKD progresses and correlates significantly with level of renal function. Increased TAS seems to be dependent on several confounding variables, including increased uric acid levels, and therefore does not seem to be a reliable method for assessing the antioxidant capacity of patients with CKD. These results suggest that larger studies using the correct markers to assess the timing and complex interplay of oxidative stress and other risk factors during the progression of CKD should be carried out.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Seminars in Dialysis
                Semin Dial
                Wiley
                08940959
                January 2019
                January 2019
                October 04 2018
                : 32
                : 1
                : 58-71
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, 1st Department of Internal Medicine; AHEPA Hospital, School of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki; Thessaloniki Greece
                [2 ]Clinic of Nephrology and Hypertension, Diabetes and Endocrinology; Otto-von-Guericke University; Magdeburg Germany
                [3 ]Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine; University of Thessaly; Larissa Greece
                Article
                10.1111/sdi.12745
                © 2018

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor

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