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      Susceptibility of biological stages of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, to entomopathogenic fungi (Hyphomycetes)

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          Abstract

          The susceptibility of the egg, pupa, and adult of Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) to isolates of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sor., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., and Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown and Smith, was evaluated under laboratory conditions. Groups of 20 eggs than 4 h old, pupae less than 48h old and adults were sprayed with a conidial suspension of each isolate. Eggs, pupae and adults of horn fly were susceptible to these entomopathogenic fungi. For treated eggs, the isolates Ma3, Ma 15, Ma25, Pfr1, and Pfr8 reduced adult emergence to 3.8% to 6.3% in comparison with the control (72%). The mortality of pupae infected by the isolates Ma2, Ma25, and Pfr10 ranged between 50% and 71.3%. Mortality of adults after treatment with the isolates Ma6, Ma 10, Ma 14, Ma 15, Pfr 1, Pfr 9, Pfr 10, Pfr 11, and Pfr12 were higher than 90%. The isolate Ma6 produced the lowest LC 50 against adult horn flies (8.08 &times 10 2conidia/ml). These findings supported the hypotheses that isolates of M. anisopliae, and P. fumosoroseus are pathogenic against the different biological stages of horn flies by reducing adult emergence when applied on groups of eggs and pupae, and producing mortality when applied to adults.

          Resumen

          La susceptibilidad de los estados biológicos de larva, pupa y adulto de Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) a aislados de los hongos Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch.) Sor., Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill., y Paecilomyces fumosoroseus (Wize) Brown y Smith, fue evaluada bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Grupos de 20 huevos de 4 h de edad fueron colocados sobre 50 g de excremento de vaca fresco en una proporción de 10:1 de excremento de vaca: harina de pescado deshidratada y ellos se asperjaron con una suspensión a una concentración de 1 × 10 6 conidias/ml. Otros grupos de 20 pupas de menos de 48 h de edad fueron asperjados con una suspensión conteniendo 1 × 10 8 conidias/ml, y cuatro grupos de 20 adultos fueron asperjadas con una suspensión de cada aislado. Los huevos, pupas y adultos de la mosca de los cuernos fueron susceptibles a los hongos entomopatógenos. Los aislados Ma2, Ma3, Ma 15, Ma25, Pfr1, y Pfr8 causaron una reducción en la emergencia de los adultos desde 3.8 a 6.3% en comparación con el testigo (72%). Las pupas fueron micosados por los aislados Ma2, Ma25 y Pfr10 en un rango entre 50 y 71.3%; los porcentajes de mortalidad de adultos mayor que 90% con los aislados Ma6, Ma 10, Ma 14, Pfr 9, Pfr 10, Pfr 11 y Pfr12. La CL 50 más baja (8.08 ×10 2conidias/ml) en contra de adultos de moscas de los cuernos, la produjo el aislado Ma6. Los resultados apoyan la hipótesis de que los aislados de M. anisopliae y P. fumosoroseus son patógenos de diferentes estados biológico de las moscas del cuerno y que estos hongos reducen la emergencia de adultos cuando son aplicados a grupos de huevos y pupas y producen mortalidad cuando son aplicados a adultos de esta plaga.

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          Most cited references 37

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          Environmental consequences of treating cattle with the antiparasitic drug ivermectin.

           R. Wall,  P Strong (2015)
          Ivermectin (22,23-dihydroavermectin B1) is a recently discovered, persistent, broad-spectrum, antiparasitic drug of unpredecented potency which is now routinely administered to cattle, horses, sheep and pigs in many countries. In cattle, it is an efficient control for parasitic gastrointestinal and respiratory tract nematodes, warble fly, mites, lice and ticks. However, most of the ivermectin dose is ultimately eliminated in the faeces of the treated animals where it has been shown to have an insecticidal effect on the larvae of economically important, dung-breeding, haematophagous Diptera. Nevertheless, the effects of excreted ivermectin on the cowpat fauna as a whole and the wider consequences of such effects have not previously been considered. In field trials reported here, the faeces of calves fitted with rumenal boluses delivering ivermectin at 40 micrograms per kg per day, failed to degrade in the normal way and this failure was associated with the absence of dung-degrading insects. Faeces from placebo-treated controls contained a characteristic dung-degrading invertebrate community and were largely degraded within 100 days. These results indicate that the increasing widespread use of ivermectin may have important environmental consequences for pastureland.
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            A review of ectoparasites and their effect on cattle production.

            Losses in livestock production due to ectoparasite infestations exceed $2.26 billion annually. Over 50 species of ectoparasites infest cattle throughout the United States. The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), is the most important and widespread of the five to six major pest species of pastured cattle in the southern region. Results from the examination of production traits from cattle under ectoparasite burdens have been variable, ranging from no effect to significant reductions in weight gains. Because of this inconsistency, specific physiological and nutritional responses in cattle infested or not infested with horn flies have been examined. Data have shown significant differences in nitrogen retention, blood cortisol concentrations, vital signs, water consumption, and urine production. Implications are that total energy balance is altered when an animal is exposed to ectoparasite infestations, thereby resulting in decreased productivity.
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              Virulence of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) on Anastrepha ludens (Diptera: Tephritidae): laboratory and field trials.

              Twenty isolates of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae (Metsch). Sorkin (Ma) were evaluated to determine their virulence against last instar and adult emergence of Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens (Loew). Larvae were exposed by immersion in a conidial suspension at a concentration of 10(8) UFC/ml under laboratory conditions. Larvae and pupae cumulative mortality rates ranged from 37.9 to 98.75%. Thirteen isolates caused mortality rates > 83.7%, and their LT50 values ranged from 1.8 to 6.2 d. The Ma2, Ma8, and Ma16 isolates were evaluated at seven different concentrations ranging from 10(1) to 10(7) UFC/ml, showing LC50 values from 3.7 to 4.8 x 10(5) UFC/ml. In a field-cage experiment, 200 ml of a conidial suspension of Ma2, at a concentration of 2.5 x 10(6) UFC/ml, was applied on 2,500 cm2 soil surface (2 x 10(5) UFC/cm2). The fungus reduced adult emergence, 22% fewer adults emerging in a sandy loam soil, and 43% fewer in loam soil, compared with the controls. M. anisopliae may offer a preferable alternative to chemicals as a biological control agent against A. ludens.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Insect Sci
                Journal of Insect Science
                University of Arizona Library
                1536-2442
                2005
                31 December 2005
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad de Colima, Km 40 Autopista Colima-Manzanillo, Tecomán, Colima, CP. 28100
                [2 ]Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Colima, Km 40 Autopista Colima-Manzanillo, Tecomán, Colima, CP. 28100
                [3 ]Instituto Tecnológico Agropecuario de Aguascalientes. A.P. 74-2, Admón. Postal No. 2, C.P. 20041, Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes, Mexico
                [4 ]Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias. Universidad de Guadalajara. Km. 15.5 Carretera Guadalajara-Nogales “Las agujas” Zapopan, Jalisco, Mexico
                [5 ]American Embassy, Unit 0945, APO, AA 34002 (located in Panama City, Panama)
                [6 ]University of Nebraska Lincoln, Insect Genetics Laboratory, Department of Entomology, 312 F Plant Industry Building, Lincoln, Nebraska 68583-0938
                Correspondence: jmolina@ 123456ucol.mx , jmolina18@ 123456hotmail.com , rlezama@ 123456ucol.mx
                Article
                1615257
                17119632
                Copyright © 2005. Open access; copyright is maintained by the authors.
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