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      Cardiotoxicity of Uremic Toxins: A Driver of Cardiorenal Syndrome

      Toxins

      MDPI

      uremic toxins, FGF23, protein-bound uremic toxin, indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, cardiotoxicity, cardiorenal syndrome

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          Abstract

          Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is highly prevalent in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Such coexistence of CVD and CKD—the so-called “cardiorenal or renocardiac syndrome”—contributes to exponentially increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Uremic cardiomyopathy is a characteristic cardiac pathology commonly found in CKD. CKD patients are also predisposed to heart rhythm disorders especially atrial fibrillation. Traditional CV risk factors as well as known CKD-associated CV risk factors such as anemia are insufficient to explain CV complications in the CKD population. Accumulation of uremic retention solutes is a hallmark of impaired renal excretory function. Many of them have been considered inert solutes until their biological toxicity is unraveled and they become accepted as “uremic toxins”. Direct cardiotoxicity of uremic toxins has been increasingly demonstrated in recent years. This review offers a mechanistic insight into the pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction contributed by uremic toxins with a main focus on fibroblastic growth factor-23, an emerging toxin playing a central role in the chronic kidney disease–mineral bone disorder, and the two most investigated non-dialyzable protein-bound uremic toxins, indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate. Potential therapeutic strategies that could address these toxins and their relevant mediated pathways since pre-dialysis stages are also discussed.

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          Most cited references 167

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          Chronic kidney disease: effects on the cardiovascular system.

          Accelerated cardiovascular disease is a frequent complication of renal disease. Chronic kidney disease promotes hypertension and dyslipidemia, which in turn can contribute to the progression of renal failure. Furthermore, diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of renal failure in developed countries. Together, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes are major risk factors for the development of endothelial dysfunction and progression of atherosclerosis. Inflammatory mediators are often elevated and the renin-angiotensin system is frequently activated in chronic kidney disease, which likely contributes through enhanced production of reactive oxygen species to the accelerated atherosclerosis observed in chronic kidney disease. Promoters of calcification are increased and inhibitors of calcification are reduced, which favors metastatic vascular calcification, an important participant in vascular injury associated with end-stage renal disease. Accelerated atherosclerosis will then lead to increased prevalence of coronary artery disease, heart failure, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Consequently, subjects with chronic renal failure are exposed to increased morbidity and mortality as a result of cardiovascular events. Prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease are major considerations in the management of individuals with chronic kidney disease.
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            Fibroblast growth factor 23 is elevated before parathyroid hormone and phosphate in chronic kidney disease.

            Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphorus metabolism and is a strong predictor of mortality in dialysis patients. FGF23 is thought to be an early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in the initial stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We measured FGF23 in baseline samples from 3879 patients in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study, which is a diverse cohort of patients with CKD stage 2-4. Mean serum phosphate and median parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels were in the normal range, but median FGF23 was markedly greater than in healthy populations, and increased significantly with decreasing estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). High levels of FGF23, defined as being above 100 RU/ml, were more common than secondary hyperparathyroidism and hyperphosphatemia in all strata of eGFR. The threshold of eGFR at which the slope of FGF23 increased was significantly higher than the corresponding threshold for PTH based on non-overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Thus, increased FGF23 is a common manifestation of CKD that develops earlier than increased phosphate or PTH. Hence, FGF23 measurements may be a sensitive early biomarker of disordered phosphorus metabolism in patients with CKD and normal serum phosphate levels.
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              Serum indoxyl sulfate is associated with vascular disease and mortality in chronic kidney disease patients.

              As a major component of uremic syndrome, cardiovascular disease is largely responsible for the high mortality observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Preclinical studies have evidenced an association between serum levels of indoxyl sulfate (IS, a protein-bound uremic toxin) and vascular alterations. The aim of this study is to investigate the association between serum IS, vascular calcification, vascular stiffness, and mortality in a cohort of CKD patients. One-hundred and thirty-nine patients (mean +/- SD age: 67 +/- 12; 60% male) at different stages of CKD (8% at stage 2, 26.5% at stage 3, 26.5% at stage 4, 7% at stage 5, and 32% at stage 5D) were enrolled. Baseline IS levels presented an inverse relationship with renal function and a direct relationship with aortic calcification and pulse wave velocity. During the follow-up period (605 +/- 217 d), 25 patients died, mostly because of cardiovascular events (n = 18). In crude survival analyses, the highest IS tertile was a powerful predictor of overall and cardiovascular mortality (P = 0.001 and 0.012, respectively). The predictive power of IS for death was maintained after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, albumin, hemoglobin, phosphate, and aortic calcification. The study presented here indicates that IS may have a significant role in the vascular disease and higher mortality observed in CKD patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Toxins (Basel)
                Toxins (Basel)
                toxins
                Toxins
                MDPI
                2072-6651
                01 September 2018
                September 2018
                : 10
                : 9
                Affiliations
                Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Chiang Mai University, 110 Intawaroros Rd, Sribhoom, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand; slekawan@ 123456hotmail.com ; Tel.: +66-53-935442 (ext. 101); Fax: +66-53-935442 (ext. 102)
                Article
                toxins-10-00352
                10.3390/toxins10090352
                6162485
                30200452
                © 2018 by the author.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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