The aim of this study was toevaluate the prevalence of TT virus (TTV) in 107 hemodialysis patients and 100 healthy individuals. Sixteen percent of hemodialysis patients and 2% of the control population were TTV positive (P<0.001). Sex, time on dialysis, transfusions, and alanine aminotransferase levels were not related to the presence of TTV DNA. TTV was more frequent in patients 50 to 70 (12/51) years of age and persisted in the serum of six of nine patients 8 months later. TTV was found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of all patients with chronic infection, and sequence variation was noted in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of two patients. No relationship between TTV infection and hepatitis was observed. Viral persistence and nonparenteral transmission may be possible in patients on hemodialysis.