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      The Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Nervous System Effects of Two Natural Sources of Caffeine in Healthy Adult Males

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          Abstract

          This double‐blind crossover clinical trial randomized 12 adult males to receive 200 mg of caffeine from a green coffee extract, a guayusa leaf extract, and a synthetic control to compare their safety, absorption, and effect on neurotransmitters. The results showed no statistically significant changes in blood pressure or heart rate from baseline to 120 min postdose of each natural source compared with changes from baseline in the control ( 0.094 < = P < = 0.910). The ratios of C max, AUC 0‐4, and AUC 0‐∞ of each natural source to the control were bioequivalent by US Food and Drug Administration standards (90% CI within 80–125%). The guayusa leaf extract stimulated a significantly lower increase in epinephrine compared with the control (+0.5 vs. +2.78 μg/gCr, P = 0.04), while the green coffee extract provoked an increase in epinephrine similar to the control (+3.21 vs. +2.78 μg/gCr, P = 0.569). Implications for future clinical research are discussed.

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          Conspectus florae Graecae / auctore E. de Halácsy.

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            Food sources and intakes of caffeine in the diets of persons in the United States.

            This study provides information on the caffeine intakes of a representative sample of the US population using the US Department of Agriculture 1994 to 1996 and 1998 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals. The percentage of caffeine consumers of the total sample (N=18,081) and by age and sex groups and for pregnant women were determined. Among caffeine consumers (n=15,716), the following were determined: mean intakes of caffeine (milligrams per day and milligrams per kilogram per day) for all caffeine consumers, as well as for each age and sex group and pregnant women; mean intakes (milligrams per day) of caffeine by food and beverage sources; and the percent contribution of each food and beverage category to total caffeine intake for all caffeine consumers, as well as each age and sex group and pregnant women. Eight-seven percent of the sample consumed food and beverages containing caffeine. On average, caffeine consumers' intakes were 193 mg caffeine per day and 1.2 mg caffeine per kilogram of body weight per day. As age increased, caffeine consumption increased among people aged 2 to 54 years. Men and women aged 35 to 64 years were among the highest consumers of caffeine. Major sources of caffeine were coffee (71%), soft drinks (16%), and tea (12%). Coffee was the major source of caffeine in the diets of adults, whereas soft drinks were the primary source for children and teens.
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              Neuroprotection by caffeine and A(2A) adenosine receptor inactivation in a model of Parkinson's disease.

              Recent epidemiological studies have established an association between the common consumption of coffee or other caffeinated beverages and a reduced risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD). To explore the possibility that caffeine helps prevent the dopaminergic deficits characteristic of PD, we investigated the effects of caffeine and the adenosine receptor subtypes through which it may act in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) neurotoxin model of PD. Caffeine, at doses comparable to those of typical human exposure, attenuated MPTP-induced loss of striatal dopamine and dopamine transporter binding sites. The effects of caffeine were mimicked by several A(2A) antagonists (7-(2-phenylethyl)-5-amino-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo-[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine (SCH 58261), 3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine, and (E)-1,3-diethyl-8 (KW-6002)-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione) (KW-6002) and by genetic inactivation of the A(2A) receptor, but not by A(1) receptor blockade with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, suggesting that caffeine attenuates MPTP toxicity by A(2A) receptor blockade. These data establish a potential neural basis for the inverse association of caffeine with the development of PD, and they enhance the potential of A(2A) antagonists as a novel treatment for this neurodegenerative disease.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Douglas.Kalman@qps.com
                Journal
                Clin Transl Sci
                Clin Transl Sci
                10.1111/(ISSN)1752-8062
                CTS
                Clinical and Translational Science
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                1752-8054
                1752-8062
                20 June 2016
                October 2016
                : 9
                : 5 ( doiID: 10.1111/cts.2016.9.issue-5 )
                : 246-251
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]QPS MRA (Miami Research Associates) Miami, FloridaUSA
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: DS Kalman ( Douglas.Kalman@ 123456qps.com )
                Article
                CTS12403
                10.1111/cts.12403
                5350996
                27320048
                © 2016 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 5, Pages: 6, Words: 5163
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: Applied Food Sciences Inc
                Categories
                Article
                Research
                Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                cts12403
                October 2016
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:5.0.8 mode:remove_FC converted:10.03.2017

                Medicine

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