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      Global Change and Human Vulnerability to Vector-Borne Diseases

      Clinical Microbiology Reviews

      American Society for Microbiology

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          Abstract

          SUMMARY

          Global change includes climate change and climate variability, land use, water storage and irrigation, human population growth and urbanization, trade and travel, and chemical pollution. Impacts on vector-borne diseases, including malaria, dengue fever, infections by other arboviruses, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, and leishmaniasis are reviewed. While climate change is global in nature and poses unknown future risks to humans and natural ecosystems, other local changes are occurring more rapidly on a global scale and are having significant effects on vector-borne diseases. History is invaluable as a pointer to future risks, but direct extrapolation is no longer possible because the climate is changing. Researchers are therefore embracing computer simulation models and global change scenarios to explore the risks. Credible ranking of the extent to which different vector-borne diseases will be affected awaits a rigorous analysis. Adaptation to the changes is threatened by the ongoing loss of drugs and pesticides due to the selection of resistant strains of pathogens and vectors. The vulnerability of communities to the changes in impacts depends on their adaptive capacity, which requires both appropriate technology and responsive public health systems. The availability of resources in turn depends on social stability, economic wealth, and priority allocation of resources to public health.

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          Most cited references 195

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          Increasing greenhouse gas concentrations are expected to have significant impacts on the world's climate on a timescale of decades to centuries. Evidence from long-term monitoring studies is now accumulating and suggests that the climate of the past few decades is anomalous compared with past climate variation, and that recent climatic and atmospheric trends are already affecting species physiology, distribution and phenology.
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            Habitat, the Templet for Ecological Strategies?

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              A New Perspective on Recent Global Warming: Asymmetric Trends of Daily Maximum and Minimum Temperature

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Clinical Microbiology Reviews
                CMR
                American Society for Microbiology
                0893-8512
                1098-6618
                January 2004
                January 2004
                : 17
                : 1
                : 136-173
                Article
                10.1128/CMR.17.1.136-173.2004
                321469
                14726459
                © 2004
                Product
                Self URI (article page): https://CMR.asm.org/content/17/1/136

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