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      High frequency of kdr L1014F is associated with pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles coluzzii in Sudan savannah of northern Nigeria

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          Malaria burden is high in Nigeria, yet information on the major mosquito vectors is lacking especially in the Sudan savannah region of the country. In order to facilitate the design of future insecticide-based control interventions in the region, this study has established the resistance profile of An. gambiae s.l. populations in two northern Nigeria locations and assessed the contribution of target site resistance mutations.


          Larval collection was conducted in two localities in Sudan savannah (Bunkure and Auyo) of northern Nigeria between 2009 and 2011, from which resulting adult, female mosquitoes were used for insecticides bioassays with deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, DDT and malathion. The mosquitoes were identified to species level and molecular forms and then genotyped for the presence of L1014F-kdr, L1014S-kdr and ace-1 R mutations.


          WHO bioassays revealed that An. gambiae s.l. from both localities were highly resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin and DDT, but only moderately resistant to deltamethrin. Full susceptibility was observed to malathion. An. gambiae, M form (now An. coluzzii), was predominant over An. arabiensis in Auyo and was more resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin than An. arabiensis. No ‘S’ form ( An. gambiae s.s.) was detected. A high frequency of 1014 F mutation (80.1%) was found in An. coluzzii in contrast to An. arabiensis (13.5%). The presence of the 1014 F kdr allele was significantly associated with resistance to lambda-cyhalothrin in An. coluzzii (OR = 9.85; P < 0.001) but not in An. arabiensis. The L1014S- kdr mutation was detected in a single An. arabiensis mosquito while no ace-1 R mutation was found in any of the mosquitoes analysed.


          The predominance of An. coluzzii and its resistance profile to main insecticides described in this study can guide the implementation of appropriate vector control interventions in this region of Nigeria where such information was previously lacking.

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          Pyrethroid resistance in African anopheline mosquitoes: what are the implications for malaria control?

          The use of pyrethroid insecticides in malaria vector control has increased dramatically in the past decade through the scale up of insecticide treated net distribution programmes and indoor residual spraying campaigns. Inevitably, the major malaria vectors have developed resistance to these insecticides and the resistance alleles are spreading at an exceptionally rapid rate throughout Africa. Although substantial progress has been made on understanding the causes of pyrethroid resistance, remarkably few studies have focused on the epidemiological impact of resistance on current malaria control activities. As we move into the malaria eradication era, it is vital that the implications of insecticide resistance are understood and strategies to mitigate these effects are implemented. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Insecticide resistance in insect vectors of human disease.

            Insecticide resistance is an increasing problem in many insect vectors of disease. Our knowledge of the basic mechanisms underlying resistance to commonly used insecticides is well established. Molecular techniques have recently allowed us to start and dissect most of these mechanisms at the DNA level. The next major challenge will be to use this molecular understanding of resistance to develop novel strategies with which we can truly manage resistance. State-of-the-art information on resistance in insect vectors of disease is reviewed in this context.
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              Molecular characterization of pyrethroid knockdown resistance (kdr) in the major malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s.

              Pyrethroid-impregnated bednets are playing an increasing role for combating malaria, especially in stable malaria areas. More than 90% of the current annual malaria incidence (c. 500 million clinical cases with up to 2 million deaths) is in Africa where the major vector is Anopheles gambiae s.s. As pyrethroid resistance has been reported in this mosquito, reliable and simple techniques are urgently needed to characterize and monitor this resistance in the field. In insects, an important mechanism of pyrethroid resistance is due to a modification of the voltage-gated sodium channel protein recently shown to be associated with mutations of the para-type sodium channel gene. We demonstrate here that one of these mutations is present in certain strains of pyrethroid resistant A. gambiae s.s. and describe a PCR-based diagnostic test allowing its detection in the genome of single mosquitoes. Using this test, we found this mutation in six out of seven field samples from West Africa, its frequency being closely correlated with survival to pyrethroid exposure. This diagnostic test should bring major improvement for field monitoring of pyrethroid resistance, within the framework of malaria control programmes.

                Author and article information

                BMC Infect Dis
                BMC Infect. Dis
                BMC Infectious Diseases
                BioMed Central (London )
                15 August 2014
                15 August 2014
                : 14
                : 1
                [ ]Bayero University, P.M.B. 3011, Kano, Nigeria
                [ ]Vector Biology Department, Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine, Pembroke Place, L3 5QA Liverpool, UK
                © Ibrahim et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014

                This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

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